Taxon Details: Eschweilera integrifolia (Ruiz & Pav. ex Miers) R.Knuth
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Family:

Lecythidaceae (Magnoliophyta)
Scientific Name:

Eschweilera integrifolia (Ruiz & Pav. ex Miers) R.Knuth
Primary Citation:

Pflanzenr. (Engler) IV, 219a: 97. 1939
Accepted Name:

This name is currently accepted.
Description:

Author: Xavier Cornejo & Scott A. Mori

Type: ECUADOR. Guayas: Guayaquil, no date (fl), Pavon s.n. (lectotype, MA, designated in Mori & Prance, 1990, photo at GH; isolectotypes, K fide Myers)

Description: Understory to canopy trees. Leaves: petioles 5-10 mm long, 1-1.5 mm diam.; blades 8.5-15 x 3.5-6.5 cm, elliptic, chartaceous, drying light brown, glabrous, reddish-brown punctate abaxially, the base acute to obtuse, the margins usually entire, sometimes dentate toward apex (Kernan 1001), the apex short acuminate to acuminate; secondary veins in 7-12 pairs. Infls. usually from branches (ramiflorous) or axillary, unbranched racemes or infrequently weakly branched at base, the rachis 1-4.5 cm long, lenticellate; pedicel/hypanthium 1-3 mm long, truncate to articulation, not sulcate, glabrous, sparsely lenticellate, drying black. Flowers ca. 2-2.5 cm diam.; hypanthium abruptly constricted into pedicel, glabrous, drying black; calyx with six lobes, the lobes narrowly ovate to ovate, 2.5-3 x 1.5-4 mm, horizontally oriented at anthesis, thick, convex abaxially, the bases not to scarcely imbricate; petals 6, pink to purple, very infrequently white; androecial hood with triple coil. Fruits 5 x 4-7 cm (including operculum), depressed globose, the calycine ring not conspicuous, the supracalycine zone erect, the infracalycine zone rounded to pedicel, the operculum convex, somewhat prolonged to umbonate at apex. Seeds with aril spreading).

Common names: None recorded

Distribution: This species ranges from central Costa Rica into into coastal NW South America as far south as central coastal Ecuador.

Ecology: This species usually grows as an understory tree in moist forests below 500 m alt. After 45 days, one of three seeds planted by X. Cornejo germinated and sent up a purple sprout.

Phenology: In Costa Rica, at the northern point of its distribution on the Osa Peninsula this species flowers from Feb to Mar and fruits have been collected in Jun and Jul.; in the Darién of Panama flowering collections come from Oct to Mar with a peak in Oct; in the Chocó of Colombia it has been collected in flower most often in Feb but also in Jan and April and in Antioquia of the same country flowering collections have been gathered from Dec to May; and in the coastal forests of NW Ecuador it has been collected in Sep Oct, Apr, and Jul.

Pollination: This species has a coiled androecial hood that produces nectar as a pollinator reward and is most likely probably pollinated by bees.

Dispersal: This species has a spreading aril but there is no information about the dispersal of any species of Eschweilera, especially those with a spreading aril.

Predation: No observations recorded.

Field characters: Eschweilera integrifolia is characterized by medium-sized, elliptic, chartaceous leaves with numerous abaxial reddish-brown punctae; leaf blades that dry light brown; usually unbranched, short inflorescences; small, thick, scarcely imbricate calyx lobes; usually with pink to purple petals and androecial hood; a triple-coiled androecial hood; and seeds covered by a spreading aril.

Taxonomic notes: E. integrifolia was first collected by J. Tafalla (not by either Pavón or Ruiz both of whom never visited Ecuador) in the area of the Bulu-bulu River in the province of Guayas. The type locality is ca. 30 minutes south of Guayaquil in western Ecuador. This information is published in Flora Huayaquilensis and also in the protologue of Lecythis subiflora that is attached to this species page. Tafalla initially named this species as Lecythis subiflora in Flora Huayaquilensis) and once the specimen and plate arrived to Spain that name was changed by Ruiz to Lecythis integrifolia. The species epithet integrifolia) has priority because it was published in 1939 (Knuth, 1939) whereas subiflora was not published until 1959 (Lopez, 1959). Today the type area of E. integrifolia is deforested and the closest area to the type locality with native forests in which the species survives is The Reserva Ecologica Manglares Churute (REMCH) located ca. 10 minutes south of the Bulu-bulu River. Three collections from the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica have yellow (Marin 444), cream-colored (Kernan 1001), or white (Aguilar 11140) petals, but Hammel et al. 19426 from the same area has purple petals. Specimens from the type locality and from other parts of the range of this species have red or purple petals. In other respects, these collections are morphologically similar. It is still not clear, however, if the specimens from Costa Rica represent a closely related but distinct population that should be recognized as one or more separate species.

Conservation: IUCN Red List: Lower Risk/least concern ver 2.3 (Mitré, M. 1998. Eschweilera integrifolia. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 13 March 2014.).

Uses: None reported

Etymology: The specific epithet means "entire-leaved" but some collections from the Osa Peninsula are somewhat serrate.

Source: Based on Mori & Prance (1990).

Flora and Monograph Treatment(s):

Eschweilera integrifolia (Ruiz & Pav. ex Miers) R.Knuth: [Article] Mori, S. A. & Prance, Ghillean T. 1990. Lecythidaceae - Part II: The zygomorphic-flowered New World genera (Couroupita, Corythophora, Bertholletia, Couratari, Eschweilera, & Lecythis). With a study of secondary xylem of Neotropical Lecythidaceae by Carl de Zeeuw. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 21: 1-376.
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Eschweilera integrifolia (Ruiz & Pav. ex Miers) R.Knuth