Echinacea pallida Nutt.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Stems clustered on a strong taproot, usually simple; herbage coarsely spreading-hirsute; lvs entire or nearly so, basally disposed, elongate and narrow, the blade to 20 × 4 cm, mostly 5–20 times as long as wide (or the basal a little wider), tapering to the petiole; disk 1.5–3 cm wide; rays pink, varying to purple or white; 2n=22, 44. Dry, open places, especially on the prairies and plains; e. Mont. to Tex., e. to Wis., Ill., Ark., and La., and irregularly, mainly as an intr., to Mich., N.Y., N.C., and Ga. Var. pallida, the more eastern segment of the sp., the principal phase in our range, is mostly tetraploid and robust, 4–10 dm, with drooping rays mostly 4–8 cm, and typically with white pollen. (E. simulata McGregor, of se. Mo., ne. Ark., s. Ill., and w. Ky., diploid with yellow pollen, otherwise as var. pallida, should perhaps be recognized as another var.) Var. angustifolia (DC.) Cronquist, the more western segment of the sp., is diploid and smaller, mostly 1–5 dm, with spreading to drooping rays 2–4 cm, and yellow pollen. (E. angustifolia) An eastern outlier of var. angustifolia, in the cedar glades of c. Tenn., has been called E. tennesseensis (Beadle) Small.