Cynoglossum officinale L.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Coarse, single-stemmed biennial 3–12 dm, leafy to the top, villous or villous-hirsute; lowest lvs oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 1–3 dm overall, 2–5 cm wide, the others sessile and more oblong or lanceolate, numerous, gradually reduced; infl of numerous false racemes in the upper axils or on short axillary branches, the mature pedicels curved-spreading; cal at anthesis 3–5 mm; cor dull reddish-purple, nearly salverform, the limb 1 cm wide or a little less, the fornices exsert; nutlets 5–7 mm, ovate, descending-spreading, forming a broadly low-pyramidal fr, remaining attached to the style after splitting from the gynobase, the dorsal surface flattened, surrounded by a raised margin; 2n=24. Native of Eurasia, established as a weed in fields, meadows, and open woods throughout our range and westward.