Ilex opaca Aiton
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Bushy shrub or small tree to 15 m; lvs evergreen, coriaceous, elliptic to oblong or ovate, 5–10 cm, tipped with a stout spine, and usually with 2–several strongly salient, spine-tipped teeth on each side; fls mostly 4-merous, the staminate in peduncled clusters; fr 8–10 mm, bright red (yellow); nutlets grooved on the back; 2n=36. Sandy soil near the coast from Me. to Md.; widely distributed in the s. states from Va. to Ky. and s. Mo., s. to Fla. and Tex. May, June.