Rubus pensilvanicus Poir.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Stems usually stout, 1–3 m; armature of the primocanes of straight, spreading, or slightly reflexed prickles from an expanded base; shorter hooked prickles usually present on the petioles, often on the petiolules, and occasionally on the midveins and on the axis of the raceme, rarely in much weaker form on the pedicels; primocane lvs softly pubescent beneath, 3- or 5-foliolate; terminal lfl broadly ovate, 6–12 cm, half to nine-tenths as wide, broadest near or above to often well below the middle, distinctly acuminate, broadly rounded or subcordate at base, very coarsely and irregularly serrate to doubly serrate; floricane lvs usually with elliptic to rhombic or obovate lfls coarsely toothed above the middle, many of them simple and broadly ovate or subrotund; raceme usually short and compact, few-fld, well surpassing the lvs, varying to loose and open with long-pedicellate fls. Me. and N.H. to Minn., s. to Va., W.Va., Ind., and Mo. May–July. (R. acer; R. amnicola; R. associus; R. avipes; R. barbarus; R. bellobatus; R. bractealis; R. brainerdii; R. bushii; R. cardianus; R. condensiflorus; R. congruus; R. cupressorum; R. defectionis; R. dissitiflorus; R. facetus; R. floricomus; R. floridus; R. frondosus; R. independens; R. insulanus; R. latifoliolus; R. libratus; R. multispinus; R. ostryifolius; R. pauxillus; R. perfoliosus; R. philadelphicus; R. praepes; R. pratensis; R. recurvans; R. subsolanus; R. wisconsinensis)