Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Erect, 1–2 m; lvs to 5 dm; lfls lance-ovate or ovate- oblong to broadly ovate, 5–15 cm, acuminate, doubly serrate, rounded to cordate at base, the lateral usually oblique, sometimes 2-lobed; infl 1-3 dm; pet ca 1 mm or less; fr reflexed, 2 mm, with persistent style; 2n=18. Rich, north-facing woods; Pa. to O., Ind., and Io., s. to N.C., Ala., and Ark. May, June. The poorly defined, chiefly western var. pubescens (Rydb.) Fernald has subcylindric frs, and the lvs are usually or always pubescent beneath, in contrast to the chiefly more eastern var. dioicus, with semi-ovoid frs (strongly convex on the back) and with the lvs glabrous or pubescent beneath. (A. allegheniensis)