Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Erect, 3–8 dm, peppery; lower lvs oblong, to 2 dm, with 4–10 pairs of ovate, repand lateral lobes; cauline lvs smaller, with 3–8 pairs of oblong to linear, mostly entire lateral lobes; pet 6–8 mm; mature pedicels 3.5–7 × 1.2–1.8 mm; frs widely ascending, straight or nearly so, 4.5–7 cm, the beak 1–2.5 mm; 2n=16. Native of Eurasia, naturalized in damp soil, fields, roadsides, etc. from Nf. to Wash., s. to Fla. and Calif. Apr.–June. (Campe v.)