Barbarea vulgaris R.Br.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Dark green, erect, branched above, 2–8 dm, bitter; basal lvs petiolate, with 1–4 pairs of small, elliptic to ovate lateral lobes and a large, ovate to rotund terminal one; cauline lvs progressively reduced, the upper sessile and generally lobed rather than pinnatifid, or the uppermost entire or merely toothed; fls crowded at anthesis; pet 6–8 mm; mature pedicels 3–6 × 0.5 mm; frs erect and appressed to ascending or spreading, 1.5–3 cm, the beak 2–3 mm; 2n=16. Native of Eurasia, now widely naturalized as a weed in wet meadows and in damp soil of fields, roadsides, and gardens. Apr.–June. (B. barbarea; Campe b.; B. stricta; Campe s.)