Viola canadensis L.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Glabrous or minutely to less often evidently hairy; stems 2–4 dm; basal lvs well developed, long-petioled, ± cordate at base, often relatively wider than the cauline ones; cauline lvs several, the lower widely spaced, the upper larger and more crowded, mostly cordate and 5–10 cm; stipules lance-acuminate, entire, whitish and subscarious; fls slender-pedicellate from the upper axils; pet white inside, with a yellow base, the 3 lower ones with purplish lines toward the base, the lateral ones bearded, all (but especially the upper pair) ± purplish-tinted on the outside and sometimes less strongly so on the inside; style bearded at the capitate summit; frs ellipsoid-globose; 2n=24. Moist woods, Nf. to Alas. and B.C., Ala., Ark., and Ariz. Mostly Apr.–July. Most of our plants belong to var. canadensis, widespread in e. U.S. and adj. Can., with a short, stout rhizome, short or no pubescence, and lvs usually longer than wide. The chiefly western var. rugulosa (Greene) C. L. Hitchc., colonial by long stolons or superficial rhizomes, usually evidently hairy, and with the lvs often wider than long, extends e. to Wis. and Io. and is disjunct in the mts. of sw. Va., nw. N.C., and e. Tenn. (V. rugulosa)
tail white violet