Quercus velutina Lam.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Tree to 40 m, with very dark, rough bark, the inner bark yellow or orange; lvs glossy, shallowly or deeply lobed, pubescent in the vein-axils beneath, otherwise glabrous or persistently and loosely stellate over the lower surface and along the midvein above, the petioles and twigs of the season commonly thinly hairy; buds 4-angled, densely pubescent, 7–10 mm; acorns 1.5–2 cm, the cup turbinate, covering half the nut, wholly hairy inside, the scales relatively few and large, pubescent, the uppermost loose, prominently projecting and forming a marginal fringe. Usually in dry or sterile upland soil and on dunes; s. Me. to Mich. and se. Minn., s. to Fla. and Tex.