Quercus falcata Michx.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Large tree, to 30 m; bark dark, thick, the rough ridges separated by deep, narrow furrows; twigs of the season persistently pubescent; lvs highly variable, commonly with 1–4 pairs of lateral lobes, these and especially the terminal lobe elongate, 2–5 times as long as wide, the lateral ones rather narrowly triangular and long-tapering, the terminal one more oblong and tending to be somewhat falcate; lvs persistently cinereous-tomentose beneath and on the long (2–5 cm) petiole; acorns 1–1.5 cm, about a third covered by the deeply saucer-shaped cup. Dry or sandy soil in the e., more often in wet soil in the w.; N.J. and sw. Pa. to Fla. and Tex., chiefly on the coastal plain, n. in the interior to O., Ind., and Mo. (Q. rubra, misapplied; Q. triloba)
southern red oak, Spanish-oak