Celtis occidentalis L.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Commonly 6–15(35) m, tending to form a symmetrical, openly branched tree; lvs dark green above, paler beneath, lance-ovate to broadly ovate or deltoid, those of the fertile branches 6–12 cm, conspicuously serrate, abruptly acuminate to very long-acuminate, oblique at the base, one side (seldom both) generally ± strongly cordate, varying from thin and smooth to firm, impressed- veiny and scabrous above, and pubescent beneath, as in the next sp.; major areoles (between the primary lateral veins) usually 5–8 on each side; style tardily deciduous, ± persistent on the developing fr; fr ellipsoid to subglobose, 7–13 mm, dark red to nearly black, sweet and tasty, on a pedicel (7–)10–20(–25) mm that usually notably surpasses the subtending petiole; stone conspicuously pitted. Usually in moist, rich soil, often on floodplains; s. Que. to s. Man., s. to Va., Ark., and Okla., and locally to N.C., Ga., Ala., and Miss. Highly variable, but not clearly divisible into vars. (C. canina; C. crassifolia)