Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Genus Description - Spikelets several-fld, articulated above the glumes and between the lemmas; rachilla not prolonged beyond the upper palea; glumes extending beyond the lemmas, thin, lanceolate, acuminate, 3- or 5-veined, obscurely keeled (or more evidently so distally); lemmas closely imbricate, rounded on the back, obscurely several- veined, ± pilose at least on the margins, ending in 2 short to more often prominent teeth flanking a terminal awn (or mucro), the flat brown base of the awn slightly twisted when dry, the upper part straight, usually divergent from the spikelet; palea elliptic to obovate, extending about to the base of the awn; tufted perennials with narrow, often involute lvs, a ligule of hairs, and small, lax or racemiform panicles with large spikelets. 100+, widespread in temp. regions. (Sieglingia)