Secale cereale L.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Robust annual (biennial) 6–12 dm, branched from the base; lvs flat, 3–7(–10) mm wide; spikes stout, 6–15 cm, arcuate-nodding; spikelets disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; glumes equal, 7.5–15 mm, the strong keel scabrociliate; lemmas 12–16 mm, pectinate-ciliate on the keel and margins, with awn 2–7 cm; anthers ca 8 mm; 2n=14, 16, 27–29. European cultigen, often spontaneous in disturbed sites with us, but probably never persistent.