Elymus canadensis L.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Coarse, 8–15 dm, green or glaucous, in small clumps; lvs mostly 5–9 per stem, firm, flat, 3–12(–15) mm wide, glabrous or scabrous above; auricles 1–2 mm, often clasping the stem; spikes (7–)10–20(–30) cm, usually broadly arcuate or distally nodding, compact above, often loose or interrupted below, the internodes mostly 4–7 mm; spikelets mostly paired, or some of the lower in 3’s or even 4’s, 12–15 mm, 3–4-fld; glumes subequal, 15–30 mm overall, mostly 0.8–1.5 mm wide, 3–5-veined, broadest above the mostly flat and striate base, tapering into a straight awn usually equaling or longer than the body; lemmas 8.5–14 mm, usually strongly scabrous-hirtellous, 5–7- veined above, gradually tapering into a long, flexuous, spreading, scabrous awn 15–30(–35) mm; larger paleas 8.5–12.5 mm, the tip very acute and usually bidentate; anthers 2.5–4 mm; 2n=28, 42. Streambanks and dry to moist fields and meadows; N.B. and Que. to Alas., s. to N.C., Tex., and Calif. A hybrid with Hordeum jubatum has been called ×Elyhordeum dakotense (Bowden) Bowden.
Canada wild rye