Phalaris arundinacea L.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Colonial by rhizomes; culms stout, 7–15 dm; main blades usually 1–2 dm × 10–15(–20) mm; panicle 7–25+ cm, dense but branched or lobed, often lightly suffused with purple; glumes 4–6.5 mm, wingless, glabrous to scaberulous; sterile lemmas linear-subulate, evidently villous, 1–2 mm; fertile lemma 3–4.5 mm, appressed-hairy distally; 2n=14, 28, 35, 42. Streambanks, lake-shores, marshes, and moist ground; circumboreal, in Amer. from Nf. to Alas., s. to N.C., Kans., and Calif., more abundant westward. Ribbon-grass, with green- and white-striped lvs, is a horticultural variant.