Avena fatua L.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Stout annual to 10+ dm; ligules 2–6 mm; blades scabrous to somewhat pilose, 3–10(–15) mm wide; panicle 10–25+ cm, open, its branches horizontally spreading; spikelets ± nodding, (2)3-fld, the hirsute rachilla readily disarticulating; glumes prominently (7)9- or 11-veined, the first one 19–26+ mm, lanceolate, acuminate; lemmas 14–20+ mm, 5-or 7-veined, usually with brown hairs on the back, the 2 lower ones awned; awns (18–)28–45(–52) mm, stout, geniculate, twisted below, thin and tapering above, attached above the middle of the lemma; third lemma usually awnless; 2n=42. Native of Europe, frequently adventive or established as a weed of cult. ground or waste places, but not common in most of our range except at the nw.