Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) J.Presl & C.Presl
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Species Description - Tufted, short-lived perennial to 2 m; culms smooth, or minutely hairy at the nodes; sheaths smooth; blades scabrous, 4–8 mm wide; infl shining, slender, 1–3 dm, the short branches fascicled; glumes lance-ovate, acute or acuminate, the first 4.5–8 mm, the second 6.5–10 mm; lemmas glabrous or sparsely pilose; awn of the lower lemma 10–20 mm, geniculate near the middle; awn of the upper lemma 0–6 mm; anthers 4 mm; 2n=14, 28, 42. Meadows, roadsides, and waste ground, usually in moist soil; native of Europe, now widespread in the U.S. and found throughout our range. Plants with the lower internodes short, thickened into a series of subglobose corms 1 cm thick, are sporadic with us and have been distinguished as var. bulbosum (Willd.) Spenner.