Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Genus Description - Spikelets 3-fld, ovate to oblong or cylindric, subterete or moderately flattened, disarticulating above the glumes and between the lemmas; glumes unequal, shorter than the lemmas, 1-veined, often scarious at the margins and tip; lemmas awnless, lance-ovate to elliptic or obovate, usually obtuse, rounded on the back, usually scarious at the tip, the (5)7(9) veins parallel, often raised; paleas elliptic to obovate, becoming indurate; stigmas elevated on naked slender styles; perennials of marshes, shallow water, or wet ground, erect or decumbent at base and often rooting from the lower nodes, with flat or folded blades, closed sheaths, and freely branched, often ample panicles; x=10. (Panicularia) 35, mainly N. Temp. For G. pallida, see Puccinellia pallida.