Warnstorfia exannulata (Schimp.) Loeske

  • Authority

    Hedenäs, Lars. 2003. Amblystegiaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 89: 1--107. (Published by NYBG Press)

  • Family


  • Scientific Name

    Warnstorfia exannulata (Schimp.) Loeske

  • Type

    Type. Germany. Rheinland-Pfalz: near Kirkel, Jun, s.n. (probable holotype, herb. P. Bruch in BM).

  • Synonyms

    Hypnum fluitans var. purpurascens Schimp., Amblystegium capillaceum Mitt., Drepanocladus brasiliensis Broth., Hypnum exannulatum Schimp., Drepanocladus exannulatus (Schimp.) Warnst., Warnstorfia exannulata var. purpurascens (Schimp.) Tuom. & T.J.Kop., Hypnum capillaceum (Mitt.) Schimp., Drepanocladus capillaceus (Mitt.) Broth. ex Paris

  • Description

    Species Description - Plants medium-sized or large; green, yellowish, or with red secondary coloration. Stem pinnately (radially) or sparsely pinnately branched; hyalodermis usually somewhat indistinct in part of stem circumference; pseudoparaphyllia triangular or broadly triangular or broad and irregular; axillary hairs with 1-4-celled upper part, this hyaline when young. Stem leaves slightly or strongly curved, rarely straight, narrowing gradually from ovate or ovate-triangular base to apex, not plicate, concave; apex acuminate; margin distinctly denticulate in upper and/or lower part, often (just above alar cells) with distinctly rectangular and/or distinctly widened cells; costa single and relatively strong, ending 60-95% of way up leaf; median laminal cells (21.0-)28.0-194.0(-215.0) × 4.5-8.5 µm, thin-walled or incrassate and mostly slightly porose; alar cells inflated and hyaline, sometimes colored when old; alar group distinctly delimited, transverse-triangular, reaching or nearly reaching costa. Dioicous. Inner perichaetial leaves narrowing ± abruptly to acuminate apex. Exostome outside reticulate in lower part. [Sporophytes not known from neotropical material.]

  • Discussion

    Warnstorfia exannulata has been reported from Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil (as Drepanocladus brasiliensis), and Bolivia (e.g., Churchill, 1994; Churchill & Linares, 1995; Delgadillo et al., 1995; Griffin, 1975; Hegewald & Hegewald, 1985; Hermann, 1976; Menzel, 1992; Robinson et al., 1977; Sharp et al., 1994). I have seen numerous Mexican specimens referred to as W exannulata, but all have proved to belong to other taxa, mainly species of Drepanocladus. Despite the fact that Drepanocladus exannulatus var. mexicanus Cardot was considered a synonym of W. exannulata by Sharp et al. (1994), the type material belongs to Drepanocladus sordidus. I have not seen any Guatemalan specimens of W exannulata. Thus, W. exannulata may not occur in C America. Warnstorfia exannulata is recognized by falcate (gradually curved) or rarely straight leaves; the frequent occurrence of red colors; large, well-delimited, transverse-triangular alar groups that ± reach the costa and consist of large, inflated cells; rhizoid initials that are almost invariably found in the lamina of at least some of the leaves, especially close to the leaf apex; and often distinctly rectangular and/or distinctly widened marginal laminal cells above the alar groups. The latter is never as pronounced in other Warnstorfia species as it can be in W. exannulata. However, because this feature is rather variable, experience and caution are needed when using it to identify material. Warnstorfia fluitans differs from W. exannulata in being autoicous; in usually having narrower, triangular to lanceolate, pseudoparaphyllia; in hardly ever getting pure red colors (the red is mostly mixed with brown); and in having more weakly differentiated alar groups that do not extend as far up along the leaf margin. Certain phenotypes of W. exannulata from springs, i.e., those with inflated alar cells ± in only one row along most of the leaf base, have sometimes been called var. purpurascens (Schimp.) Tuom. & T. J. Kop. However, all transitions between these phenotypes and those from other habitats exist, and if the different phenotypes are cultivated together under greenhouse conditions, the resulting plants cannot be separated from each other (based on north European material; Hedenas, unpublished results). For the differences between Warnstorfia exannulata and both W. trichophylla and Drepanocladus aduncus, see the notes after the latter two species.

    Distribution and Ecology: Venezuela (3000-3700 m a.s.l.), Colombia (3200-4450 m), Ecuador (3350-4400 m), Peru (3100-3900 m), Brazil (2300-2400 m), and Bolivia (3480-4950 m). Also in southern S America (where material was seen from localities northward to Prov. Santiago in Chile and Serra do Mar in Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil (

  • Distribution

    Venezuela South America| Mérida Venezuela South America| Táchira Venezuela South America| Colombia South America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Arauca Colombia South America| Boyacá Colombia South America| Caldas Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Nariño Colombia South America| Santander Colombia South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Ecuador South America| Azuay Ecuador South America| Carchi Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Pichincha Ecuador South America| Peru South America| Amazonas Peru South America| Cajamarca Peru South America| Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Bolivia South America| Cochabamba Bolivia South America| La Paz Bolivia South America|