Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw.) Spruce
Hedenäs, Lars. 2003. Amblystegiaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 89: 1--107. (Published by NYBG Press)
Type. Germany. Leipzig s.n. (lectotype, G, designated by Ochyra, 1989).
Hypnum fallax Brid., Amblystegium irriguum var. spinifolium Schimp., Cratoneuron punae Müll.Hal., Amblystegium dusenii Broth., Hygroamblystegium punae (Müll.Hal.) Broth., Cratoneuron filicinum var. julocladon Herzog, Hygroamblystegium crassicostatum Bartram, Hygroamblystegium meridense E.B.Bartram, Hypnum filicinum Hedw., Amblystegium filicinum (Hedw.) De Not.
Species Description - Plants medium-sized, rarely smaller; green, yellowish green, or occasionally brownish, often with pale shoot and branch apices. Stem somewhat stiff; pinnately or irregularly branched, occasionally almost unbranched; pseudoparaphyllia rounded to triangular; paraphyllia lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, numerous or few, rarely absent in weak shoots; axillary hairs weak and infrequent, not more than one per axil, with 1-2-celled upper part, this hyaline; rhizoids frequently strongly branched, abundant, forming tomentum. Stem leaves straight or falcate (gradually curved), narrow- to broad-triangular or rounded-triangular to ovate, narrowing gradually to rather abruptly to acumen, not or hardly plicate, plane or slightly concave, decurrent; margin denticulate or serrulate almost throughout, rarely entire; costa strong, (42.0-)52.5-126.0 µm wide near base (outside the area to 157.0 µm), ending in leaf apex or excurrent, rarely ending slightly below leaf apex; median laminal cells 12.0-62.0 × 4.0-12.5 µm, somewhat incrassate, eporose; alar cells differentiated, usually numerous, strongly widened, hyaline; alar group well defined, transverse-triangular, widest toward leaf margin (except when modified by running water), reaching or nearly reaching costa. Branch leaves usually narrower and more falcate than stem leaves. Inner perichaetial leaves narrowing gradually or ± abruptly to acuminate apex. Exostome outside cross-striolate in lower part. [Sporophytes not known from neotropical material.]
Notes. In herbarium Schimper in BM there are four syntypes of Amblystegium irriguum var. spinifolium Schimp. Ochyra marked one of these as lectotype in 1991. Because the lectotypification was not published, the name is formally lectotypified with the specimen indicated by Ochyra.Ochyra (1989) selected an Argentinean specimen as lectotype for Cratoneuron punae Mull. Hal. However, in the protologue (Muller, 1897b), the only holotype mentioned was collected in Bolivia. Thus, Ochyra’s lectotypification must be rejected. The altitude given for Hygroamblystegium punae var. tenuinerve in the protologue (Herzog, 1916) is 4300 m a.s.l., but 4400 m is stated on the voucher label. Cratoneuron filicinum has been recorded from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia (e.g., Churchill, 1994; Churchill & Linares, 1995; Delgadillo et al., 1995; Menzel, 1992; Sharp et al., 1994). Delgadillo et al. (1995) reported the species from Brazil, but Yano (1981, 1989) did not include a Brazilian specimen of the species and I have not seen any Brazilian material of this species either. Cratoneuron filicinum varies strongly, most likely depending on how wet the habitat is. There seems to be every variation from small, rather soft and ± threadlike plants to large, coarse phenotypes with extremely strong costae. Certain lax phenotypes, having a relatively lax areolation and softer stems than usual, may be difficult to recognize as members of this species. However, the strong costa that reaches the apex in many leaves, the typical and marked margin denticulation, and the clearly decurrent leaves make the identification possible. Specimens with strong and short to longexcurrent stem leaf costae are sometimes treated as var. fallax (or var. atrovirens (Brid.) Ochyra). I have, however, seen European collections where it has been possible to follow the gradual transition from normal "filicinum-leaves" to typical "fallax-leaves" along the same shoot. In some of the specimens with strong costae, the alar groups are easily lost if the specimens are not carefully prepared. Such specimens may be confused with Amblystegium tenax, whose leaf margins are at most finely and obtusely denticulate above, and entire below. In C. filicinum at least some of the younger leaves have the typical serration. From the neotropical area, no specimens of A. tenax with a costa broader than 94.5 µn at its base were seen, whereas in C. filicinum the costa may be 126.0 µm wide. Depauperate specimens of C. filicinum with poorly developed alar groups could possibly be confused with Amblystegium varium, but the latter has got a weaker costa (rarely more than 58.0 µm wide near the leaf base), much less distinctly denticulate to entire leaf margins, and mostly more ovate stem leaves than C. filicinum. Outside the neotropical area, Cratoneuron filicinum is frequently confused with species of Palustriella, which, however, have strongly plicate leaves, usually at least some prorate or papillose leaf laminal cells (especially on the dorsal side), rhizoids that are mostly warty-papillose, large axillary hairs, and linear or lanceolate-linear paraphyllia. Palustriella falcata (Brid.) Hedenäs, which occurs S to New Mexico in North America, could possibly occur in calcareous districts in the neotropical area.
Distribution and Ecology: Mexico (2440-3900 m a.s.l.), Guatemala (2285-3700 m), Colombia (2900-4100 m), Venezuela (3000-4000 m), Ecuador (3240-4300 m), Peru (2800-800 m), Bolivia (1040-4750 m), and northernmost Chile (4000 m). Also known along the Andes S to southernmost South America. Widespread and often common in temperate to tropical areas of N America, Eurasia, Africa, and New Zealand. Found in moist or wet habitats in calcareous or otherwise mineral-rich environments, on rocks or tree bases beside streams or wells, in rich fens, or on moist soil.
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