Rollinia emarginata Schltdl.

  • Authority

    Maas, Paulus J. M., et al. 1992. Rollinia. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 57: 1-188. (Published by NYBG Press)

  • Family


  • Scientific Name

    Rollinia emarginata Schltdl.

  • Type

    Type: Brasil. Without precise location ("Brasilia meridionalis"), (fl), Sellow 4899 (lectotype, B: selected here); ibidem, (fr), Sellow 2137 (syntype, B, not seen: photographs in F, GH, MO, NY); ibidem, (fl, fr) Sellow 5866 (syntypes, B, GH), (st); ibidem, Sellow s.n. (syntype, L); ibidem, (fl), Sellow s.n. (syntypes, G, LE). In the original description Schlechtendal indicated that he had studied several collections by Sellow ("In Brasilia meridionali pluribus legit locis Sellowius.").

  • Synonyms

    Rollinia rugulosa Schltdl., Rollinia salicifolia Schltdl., Rollinia glaucescens Miq., Rollinia sonderiana Walp., Rollinia longifolia var. paraguariensis Chodat, Rollinia hassleriana R.E.Fr., Rollinia intermedia R.E.Fr., Rollinia longipetala R.E.Fr., Rollinia rugulosa subsp. australis R.E.Fr., Rollinia occidentalis R.E.Fr., Rollinia glaziovii R.E.Fr., Rollinia emarginata var. longipetala (R.E.Fr.) R.E.Fr., Rollinia hassleriana var. vestita R.E.Fr., Rollinia sonderiana Walp.

  • Description

    Species Description - Shrub or tree, 1-20 m tall and to 50 cm in diam. Leafy twigs and petioles densely to sparsely covered with appressed, white (to pale brown), simple hairs 0.1-0.5 mm long, soon becoming glabrous. Petioles 2-15 mm long, 0.5-1 mm in diam. Lamina ovate, obovate, narrowly elliptic, or circular, 1-14(-18) cm long, 1-9 cm wide, membranaceous to chartaceous, green (mostly), to brown above, pale glaucous to greyish-green (mostly), to pale brown below, sparsely covered with white (to pale brown), appressed, simple hairs to 0.5 mm long, to glabrous above, sparsely covered with white, appressed, simple hairs to 0.5 mm long, to almost glabrous below, base acute to obtuse, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse (to emarginate); secondary veins curved to straight, 3-18 on either side of primary vein, occasionally with mostly short intersecondaries, angles with primary vein 50-70°, smallest distance between loops and margin 0.5-2 mm, often with secondary arches, tertiary veins 4-7 per intercosta, (weakly) percurrent to reticulate. Domatia absent. Inflorescences leaf-opposed, occasionally appearing axillary due to extreme reduction of lateral shoots, 1-3-flowered, pedicels, outer side of bracts, sepals and petals densely to sparsely covered with appressed, white, simple hairs 0.1-0.4 mm long, inner side of bracts, sepals and petals glabrous. Peduncles 0-1 mm long, 0.5-1 mm in diam., fruiting peduncles to 2.5 mm in diam. Pedicels (5-) 10-25(-35) mm long, 0.5-1.5 mm in diam., fruiting pedicels to 2.5 mm in diam. Bracts deltate to triangular, 0.3-1.5(-2) mm long, upper bract basal (or possibly missing) or inserted up to 2/3 (or slightly more) of the pedicel. Flowers green, maturing yellow or creamy, fragrant in vivo. Sepals free, patent, elliptic to deltate, 0.8-3 mm long, 1.3-3.8 mm wide, obtuse to acuminate. Corolla tube 3.5-4 mm high, 3-6 mm in diam., wings obovate to broadly obovate, horizontal to ascending, 5-18 mm long, 3-16 mm high, 0.5-1 mm thick, index = 1-1.5. Fruit broadly ellipsoid, globose, or depressed globose, 1-4 cm in diam., green, maturing yellow in vivo, black, sometimes with glaucous hue when dry, composed of 15-50 carpels, areoles pulvinate to almost flat and indistinct, without apicule or occasionally with weak apicule in upper half, 5-10 mm at the base, apicule (when present) obtuse, 2-3 mm high, surface verrucose; wall 1-3 mm thick. Rarely fruit composed of carpels connate up to about halfway (Fig. N, O), carpels 5-6 mm high, 3-5 mm in diam. See also the discussion. Seeds obovoid, 615 × 3-7 mm. Chromosome number: 2n= 14.

  • Discussion

    Eight species were included by Fries (1934) in Sect. Rolliniella, viz., R. emarginata, R. glaziovii', R. hassleriana, R. occidentalis, R. rugulosa, R. salicifolia, and R. ulei. Fries observed the variability of the wing shape even within species. His description of the wings in the section runs as follows: "Wings of petals flat, discshaped, not thickened, rounded, obovate, or cuneate, narrowed toward the base." He was unable to use this character for classificatory purposes in this section. On the other hand, Fries emphasized the importance of fruit shape in this regard, at the same time admitting that he had good fruit material of only four species, and incompletely developed fruit(s) of a fifth species, out of eight. Leaf shape, he noticed, also proved variable, and therefore was not sufficient to distinguish species by either.

    Fries keyed out species in this section in the first place on indument of the torus and the ovaries. He was clearly aware, though, that these characters apparently did not lead to natural groupings.

    At the onset of our own revisionary work on Rollinia Mr. L. Souren, then an undergraduate student, made a preliminary study of Sect. Rolliniella (Souren, 1982, unpubl. manuscript). Table V summarizes his figures for the eight species.

    This table shows that R. ulei is very distinct from the other species particularly by larger leaves and the greater number of flowers per inflorescence. Not shown in the table is the very distinct tertiary and higher order venation by which R. ulei is equally different from the rest of the lot. R. ulei is a species of Andean distribution, while the other species are centered in Southeastern Brazil.

    The striking differences in shape of flowers and leaves in the Brazilian species appear to be merely extremes: we found all kinds of intergrades. R. rugulosa at first glance seems to be very distinct by leaves which turn blackish upon drying. Here too, however, there are intermediate forms to link it with other species. Therefore, we must regard the seven species as a large and variable complex for the present. This was also done by Souren in his account for Flora del Paraguay (see Spichiger & Mascherpa, 1983). Further work on the systematics of this group should, of course, include field studies.

    An aberrant fruit type is sometimes observed in R. emarginata, particularly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, and in Uruguay. Here, the carpels are united up to halfway at most, and may vary to virtually apocarpous. The fruit then strikingly resembles that of species formerly placed in Rolliniopsis, viz., R. ferruginea, R. leptopetala, and R. parviflora. Otherwise, these specimens match R. emarginata sensu stricto quite well.

    Four collections combine features of R. emarginata: flowers and leaf indument, and R. sylvatica: leaf venation and leaf color. These might be of hybrid origin.

    BRAZIL. Piaui (?): Fazenda de Boa Ventura, 19 Oct 1946 (fl), Heringer 2628 (RB). Río de Janeiro: Itaipuaçu, Pico Alto Moirão, 16 Nov 1983 (fl), Andreata et al. 615 (RB); cultivated in Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (originally from Alfenas, Minas Gerais), Sep 1934 (fl), Ducke RB24901 (RB, S). Santa Catarina: Laguna, 19 Oct 1929 (fl), F. C. Hoehne SP24454 (S).

  • Common Names

    Anona-mirim, Araticúmirim, Araticum do meúdo, Araticum do campo, Araticum cagão, Araticum de Cavalo, Araticum-manso, Araticum-mirim, Araticuninho, Ariticum, Ariticum de Cavalo, Ariticum-manso, Conde de sapo, cortica, Cortiça de comer, Curtiça, Envira, Pinha brava, Quaresma, Araticu-guayu, Araticú-guazú, Araticú-mi, Aratikú-i, Ara chichú, Arachichú, Araticú, Araticú, Chirimoya del monte

  • Objects

    Specimen - 1147236, G. A. Black 47-1593, Rollinia edulis Triana & Planch., Annonaceae (116.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Brazil, Amapá, Macapá Mun.

    Specimen - 1147267, D. C. Daly 4297, Rollinia exsucca (DC. ex Dunal) A.DC., Annonaceae (116.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Brazil, Amazonas, Tefé Mun.

  • Distribution

    Southeastern Brazil (to Rio Grande do Sul in the South), Uruguay, Northern Argentina, Paraguay, also (rarely) in Bolivia and Southeastern Peru. At elevations from sea level to 1000(-1300) m; in forests (a.o., Araucaria forest in Brazil), woods, gallery forest, and secondary forest. Flowering mainly from September through December, fruiting from December through March.

    Brazil South America| Bahia Brazil South America| Distrito Federal Brazil South America| Mato Grosso Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Paraguay South America| Alto Paraguay Paraguay South America| Alto Paraná Paraguay South America| Canindeyú Paraguay South America| Central Paraguay South America| Concepción Paraguay South America| Cordillera Paraguay South America| Guairá Paraguay South America| Paraguarí Paraguay South America| Argentina South America| Chaco Argentina South America| Corrientes Argentina South America| Formosa Argentina South America| Misiones Argentina South America| Salta Argentina South America| Santa Fé Argentina South America| Uruguay South America| Rocha Uruguay South America| Brazil South America| Amazonas Brazil South America|