Calceolaria tripartita Ruiz & Pav.

  • Authority

    Molau, Ulf. 1988. Scrophulariaceae Part I. Calceolarieae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 47: 1-325. (Published by NYBG Press)

  • Family


  • Scientific Name

    Calceolaria tripartita Ruiz & Pav.

  • Type

    Type. Peru. Dept, unknown:  in nemoribus Panatahuas (probably in the dept, of Huanuco), Pavón s.n. (type not found at MA, disappeared, cf. Pennell, 1945: 174). Neotype. Peru. Lima: Prov. Canta, along the Río Chillón, above Obrajillo, NE of Canta, 3100-3300 m, 13-23 Jun 1925, Pennell 14406 (neotype, PH; isoneotypes, F, G, LE, NY, US, cf. Molau, 1981c: 605).

  • Synonyms

    Calceolaria heterophylla Willd., Calceolaria gracilis Kunth, Calceolaria scabiosifolia Roem. & Schult., Calceolaria chelidonioides var. parvifolia Benth., Calceolaria chelidonioides var. flaccida Benth., Fagelia tripartita (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze, Fagelia gracilis Kuntze, Calceolaria ranunculoides Kraenzl., Calceolaria sarmentosa Kraenzl., Fagelia scalaris Pennell, Calceolaria puru-puru Kraenzl., Calceolaria micrantha Pennell, Calceolaria chelidonioides subsp. serratifolia Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria soukupii Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. cajamarcensis Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. candelabris Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. chumpitazii Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. crenatifolia Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. diversifolia Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. inaequalis Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. longipedunculata Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria tripartita subsp. retroflexa Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria velardei Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria celendinensis Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria chelidonioides subsp. truncata Lopez Guillen, Calceolaria corazonica Gilli

  • Description

    Species Description - Erect or ascending (rarely decumbent) herb, 0.1-1 m tall. Leaves petiolate; blades ovate in inclusive outline, (1.2-) 1.7-10 x (0.8-) 1.5-8.6 cm, dissected to the midrib or less (sometimes lobate or subentire) with 1-2(-3) pairs of lateral pinnae, the margins serrate or biserrate; petioles 1-4.4 cm long, unwinged or very narrowly winged, 1-2 mm wide, proximally somewhat dilated and connate across the nodes with narrow wings or ridges 0.3-1.6 mm wide. Inflorescence of vigorous specimens with primary peduncles 3-15 cm long; pedicels 1.6-5 cm. Sepals ovate, green, acuminate, 4.2-8.2 x 1.6-6.5 mm at anthesis, the margins ± dentate (rarely entire). Corolla type X (almost type III in some large-flowered populations), bright or (less commonly) deep yellow, unspotted, the upper lip 3-5 x 3-6 mm, the lower lip (8-)l 1-24 x 10-22 mm, saccate in 80-90% of length, the throat glabrous or pilose; elaiophore present. Stamens with anthers (3.3-)4-5.4 mm long; posterior theca fertile, whitish, sessile or subsessile, 1.2-2.2 mm long; anterior thecae sterile, vestigial; connective with a dorsal tooth 0.1-0.3 mm high and a sigmoid lower connective arm 1.7-3.5 mm long, orange to brown, terete, distally expanded into a deflexed knob (serving as a lever in pollination); filaments 0.7-1.6 mm. Style arcuate, 2-3.4(-4) mm. Capsule broadly conic to subglobose, 5-8 mm long, pale green to purplish, glandular-hirsute. 2n = 32, Molau et al. 549, Molau 867, new record), 2n = 64 (Løjtnant & Molau 11318, Løjtnant, Molau & Madison 12339, 12401, Molau 792, 832), n = ca. 27 (Straw 2383, Straw in Löve, 1970: 268).

  • Discussion

    No uses recorded.

    Calceolaria tripartita comprising thousands of bio types (±pure lines), is one of the most variable species of the genus. Some of the biotypes are easily recognized in the field, such as the large-flowered form with subentire leaves in N Peru; this form has been recognized as C. ranunculoides Kränzlin, but seems to comprise several local biotypes. However, the vast majority of the biotypes are not separable on morphological grounds, and with present knowledge it is not possible to carry out a subspecific taxonomy in C. tripartita. Furthermore, there is no obvious correlation between morphology and ploidy level (4x, 8x). A thorough biosystematic study in C. tripartita is required to elucidate the pattern of variation. This could be a suitable (but time-consuming) subject of a future thesis project in evolutionary biology, especially since the plants are easily grown from seeds.

    Distribution and Ecology: Small-flowered populations (e.g., the type of C. micrantha) are obligately autogamous (almost cleistogamous), but the vast majority of the populations are facultatively autogamous, adapted to cross-pollination by insect vectors. The legitimate pollinators are always oilgathering bees, but the pollinator species is dependent on the size of the corolla. In the department of Huanuco, Andes of central Peru, the specimens of a small-flowered biotype (Molau 832) were pollinated by small Tapinotaspis bees (Molau Z11), and the specimens of a large-flowered biotype at the same locality (Molau 831) by huge Centris bees (Molau Z10). Thus, with these three possible pollination syndromes, at least three biotypes (pure lines) can co-exist in the same locality, and the number may be higher due to the occurrence of two levels of ploidy within the species (cf. above). Calceolaria tripartita is continuously distributed in the highlands from Mexico to SE Peru, and it is the commonest Calceolaria species in the Andes of Ecuador and Peru. It grows in all kinds of moist habitats, such as ditches, seepages, streamsides, bogs, and ponds, between 1600 and 3900 m (rarely down to sea level). Outside its natural range, C. tripartita is introduced and naturalized in Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Jamaica, the Galapagos, Mauritius, Java, Ceylon, India, Nepal, Sikkim, Hongkong, Tenerife, Madeira, and the Azores (see Molau, 1981c: 606).

  • Common Names

    porta-moneda, bolsa de Judas, guantes, bolsa del pastor, monjitas, botón de oro, campanitas, bolsa de Judas, bolsa del pastor, flor de pantano, bombitas, flor de zapo, yerba de zapo, nagrauksa, bolsa de toro, bombas, antojsho, rábano de agua, ogora

  • Distribution

    Mexico North America| Chiapas Mexico North America| Guanajuato Mexico North America| Jalisco Mexico North America| Distrito Federal Mexico North America| Michoacán Mexico North America| Oaxaca Mexico North America| Puebla Mexico North America| Veracruz Mexico North America| Guatemala Central America| Alta Verapaz Guatemala Central America| Baja Verapaz Guatemala Central America| Chimaltenango Guatemala Central America| Guatemala Guatemala Central America| Jalapa Guatemala Central America| Quezaltenango Guatemala Central America| Quiché Guatemala Central America| Sacatepéquez Guatemala Central America| San Marcos Guatemala Central America| Sololá Guatemala Central America| Alajuela Costa Rica Central America| Cartago Costa Rica Central America| Heredia Costa Rica Central America| San José Costa Rica Central America| Panama Central America| Chiriquí Panamá Central America| Cuba South America| La Habana Cuba South America| Jamaica South America| Portland Jamaica South America| Saint Andrew Jamaica South America| Saint Thomas Jamaica South America| Colombia South America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Caldas Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Cundinamarca Colombia South America| Huila Colombia South America| Nariño Colombia South America| Norte de Santander Colombia South America| Putumayo Colombia South America| Santander Colombia South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Valle Colombia South America| Barinas Venezuela South America| Mérida Venezuela South America| Táchira Venezuela South America| Trujillo Venezuela South America| Ecuador South America| Azuay Ecuador South America| Bolívar Ecuador South America| Cañar Ecuador South America| Chimborazo Ecuador South America| Cotopaxi Ecuador South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Galápagos Islands Ecuador South America| Loja Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Pastaza Ecuador South America| Pichincha Ecuador South America| Tungurahua Ecuador South America| Peru South America| Amazonas Peru South America| Ancash Peru South America| Apurímac Peru South America| Ayacucho Peru South America| Cajamarca Peru South America| Cusco Peru South America| Huancavelica Peru South America| Huánuco Peru South America| Junín Peru South America| La Libertad Peru South America| Lambayeque Peru South America| Lima Peru South America| Pasco Peru South America| Piura Peru South America| Puno Peru South America| Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America|