Monographs Details: Rhamnus capraeifolia var. grandifolia L.A.Johnst. & M.C.Johnst.
Johnston, Marshall C. & Johnston, Laverne A. 1978. Rhamnus. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 20: 1-96. (Published by NYBG Press
Description:Latin Diagnosis - Laminae foliorum oblongo-obovatae vel elliptico-obovatae, (3.8-)6.3-16.0(-18.0) cm longae, (2.1-)2.7-7.6(-8.3) cm latae, apice acutae vel vix perceptibile acuminatae, glandulo-serratae; dentes mucronati, mucro niger caducus; ovarium hirsutulum.
Description - Shrub or tree (1.5-)6.0-23.0 m tall, losing old leaves and developing new ones in December (according to collector A. F. Skutch). Branchlets with hairs dense terminally decreasing with age. Stipules tapering, dark-colored, moderately to densely beset with hairs, quickly deciduous; petioles 1.3-1.7 cm long and moderately to densely beset with hairs; leaf-blades (3.8-)6.3-16.0(-18.0) cm (range of greatest frequency, 9.0-11.5 cm) long, (2.1-)2.7-7.6(-8.3) cm wide, mostly broadly elliptic but also ovate and obovate-elliptic or -oblong, (1.7-)2.0-2.4(-3.0) times longer than broad; base cuneate to rounded; apex acuminate (or a few acute in Guatemala); olive green and epidermis beset with hairs (except in Costa Rica), above with sparse to moderate amounts, beneath with moderate amounts in Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador and sparse amounts or glabrous in Costa Rica; major veins above and beneath with hairs denser than on epidermis and denser on midrib than on secondary veins, the long coarse light-colored hairs macroscopically conspicuous beneath and especially dense at the angle between midrib and secondary veins, 8-14(-17) pairs of secondary veins; margin revolute with rare exception, remotely crenate or occasionally crenulate or serrate, 4-6 irregular teeth per cm, usually mucronate. Inflorescence an axillary umbel with 6-21 flowers; peduncles absent or up to 12 mm long; pedicels 3.0-6.0 mm long; floral cups 1.5-2.0 mm deep, 2.25-3.0 mm broad; sepals 1.0-1.5 mm long, 1.0-1.25 mm wide; external floral parts moderately to somewhat densely beset with buff-colored hairs; petals 1 mm long; anthers lacking apicules; ovaries sparsely beset with long hairs at the base, stigma 3-lobed. Fruits with peduncles either lacking or up to 15.0 mm long (the longest in Guatemala); pedicels (3.0-)4.0-7.0 mm long; fruits prolate except in Mexico where broader than long or sphaerical, 6-8 mm long and 5-7 mm broad, red sparsely to moderately beset with hairs on lower half.
Discussion:Three collections by Standley (68381, 69369, 91184, F) from Guatemala are difficult to determine because they are sterile and because the pubescence of the veins on the leaf beneath is not macroscopically obvious. However, microscopic examination reveals the characteristic heavy lateral pubescence of the variety just described.Another collection from Guatemala (Steyermark 50044) shares characters in common with several other species and varieties and is possibly a hybrid. It has “trichomes” like Rhamnus sharpii and leathery leaves similar to R. sharpii and R. capraeifolia var capraeifolia. The leaves above and beneath have a moderate amount of long, ascending hairs like R. capraeifolia var grandifolia, but the veins beneath do not have the dense lateral pubescence characteristic of this variety. Leaf-margins are revolute, peduncles are absent, buds are constricted between floral cup and sepals and flowers are campanulate. An apiculate anther is reminiscent of R. mucronata but the flowers are larger and the ovary pubescent. We hesitate to refer this one collection to any of the herein proposed species or varieties, or, in the absence of other collections like it, to describe it as a new species or variety. We discuss it here because it seems to be more like the R. capraeifolia group than any other.
Distribution:Mexico North America
| Chiapas Mexico North America
| Guatemala Central America
| Quiché Guatemala Central America
| Chimaltenango Guatemala Central America
| Guatemala Guatemala Central America
| El Progreso Guatemala Central America
| Sacatepéquez Guatemala Central America
| El Salvador Central America
| Ahuachapán El Salvador Central America
| Sonsonate El Salvador Central America
| La Libertad El Salvador Central America
| Costa Rica South America
| Alajuela Costa Rica Central America
| Heredia Costa Rica Central America
| San José Costa Rica Central America