Monographs Details: Caryocar glabrum (Aubl.) Pers. subsp. glabrum
Authority: Prance, Ghillean T. & Frietas Da Silva, Marlene. 1973. Caryocaraceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 12: 1-75. (Published by NYBG Press)
Discussion:The kernel of the fruit is eaten by natives throughout its range. The epicarp of the fruit is used as a fish poison in the upper Amazon in Colombia, Brazil and Venezuela. We have actually seen it being used by the Makú Indians on the Rio Uneuixi. The wood is used in boat construction throughout Amazonia.

Caryocar toxiferum is one of the species described by Barbosa Rodrigues for which no type material exists. The type is then the illustration in the original publication which was published in 2 editions in 1888 and 1891. Ducke (1932) was the first to place C. toxiferum in synonymy with C. glabrum. We agree with his conclusions and also interpret the drawing as representing C. glabrum.

Caryocar coccineum and C. tessmannii are reduced to synonymy here for the first time. Although several workers have previously hinted at this. Ducke (1930), stated that C. tessmannii was probably synonymous with C. glabrum, although he had not seen material of the former species and was judging by the original description only. In the original description Pilger did not compare C. tessmannii with C. glabrum, but rather with C. amygdaliferum. Caryocar tessmannii is identical to C. glabrum in all respects and must be reduced to synonymy. Pilger did compare C. coccineum to C. glabrum and said that it differed in the barbate axils of the primary veins, the larger calyx and the red petals. A study of all the material available now shows that these 3 characters are not necessarily correlated. The red petal color frequently occurs throughout the range of C. glabrum where the petals range in color from yellow through yellow tinted red to red. The calyx size is certainly not significant since the calyx of C. coccineum is smaller than that of many collections of C. glabrum. Likewise the barbate axils of the primary veins cannot be used to separate a species in this complex since it occurs sporadically throughout the range of C. glabrum.

Pilger, in his description of C. tessmannii, correctly pointed out that C. amygdaliforme Don is quite different from C. amygdaliferum Mutis, and he considered C. amygdaliforme as synonymous with C. tessmannii. He did not use the epithet amygdaliforme since he considered it an orthographic variant of C. amygdaliferum. We have concluded that C. amygdaliforme is different from C. amygdaliferum, but not that it is synonymous with C. tessmannii (C. glabrum). Consequently C. amygdaliforme Don is recognized here as a separate species. For further details see under that species. C. amygdaliforme is easily distinguished from C. glabrum by the irregularly dentate leaf margins, the much longer pedicels, and the more pubescent rachis, pedicels, and exterior of the calyx.

Wittmack divided C. glabrum into 3 varieties. His var pilosum belongs within C. microcarpum rather than C. glabrum. Likewise the majority of the material placed by Wittmack in his var edule belongs to C. microcarpum. Variety edule was based on the species C. edule Casar which is quite distinct from C. microcarpum.

Collected in flower in the Guianas August through April and in Amazonia June through November.

Distribution:Colombia South America| Amazonas Colombia South America| Vaupés Colombia South America| Venezuela South America| Bolívar Venezuela South America| Amazonas Venezuela South America| Guyana South America| Suriname South America| French Guiana South America| Peru South America| Loreto Peru South America| Amazonas Peru South America| San Martín Peru South America| Brazil South America| Amazonas Brazil South America| Pará Brazil South America|

Common Names:Haw, e-ko, Kön, Jigua, Aloekoemarirang, Sawarie, Sopohoedoe, Chawari, Kassagnan, Agougagui, Almendra, Almendro, Piquiá-rana