Monographs Details: Dimerostemma episcopale (H.Rob.) H.Rob.
Authority: Moraes, M. D. & Semir, J. 2009. A revision of Brazilian (Asteraceae, Heliantheae, Ecliptinae), with a new species and taxonomic adjustments. Brittonia. 61 (4): 341-365.
Description:Species Description - Coarse, robust subshrubs 1.5-2 m tall, from a xylopodium. Leaves opposite; petioles 2-10 mm long; blades 2-7.5x1-3.8 cm, subchartaceous, ovate to elliptic, shortly to very shortly attenuate at the base, acute to shortly acuminate at the apex, margins serru- late to serrate, the adaxial surface búllate, strigose, the abaxial paler, densely tomentose to villous, sparsely so along the veins, 3- nerved, reticulate and pinnately netted distal- ly. Outer phyllaries 6-20 x 2-8 mm, mostly much longer than the inner, spreading, elliptic to narrowly oblong or lanceolate, sometimes slightly indurate and constricted at the base, obtuse, sometimes acute and mucronulate at the apex; inner phyllaries 5-7x2-3 mm, ovate to slightly obovate, obtuse to acute, mucronulate at the apex. Paleae 7-9 xca. 1.2 mm when folded, stramineous, rounded to obtuse or sometimes deltate (1:1 length/ width) at the tip. Ray florets sterile, tube 1- 2 mm long, lamina 8-17x3-6 mm, mostly yellow, rarely purplish along the veins, elliptic to obovate, mostly with deeply cut lobes, sparsely setulose abaxially. Disc florets with corollas 4-5 mm long, sometimes sparsely setulose along the veins and on the abaxial side of lobes. Cypselae 4-4.8*1.5- 2 mm, slightly thickened, subquadrangular, with a tendency for being densely tuberculate, wings 0.5-1 mm wide; pappus with awns reduced to tooth-like projections or less than one half of the cypsela length, crown 0.2- 0.8 mm high, partially fused (usually less than 1/3) with laciniate to fimbriolate or lacerate margins.


Distribution and Ecology - Distribution, habitat, and phenology. - Endemic to the State of Bahia (near 13°S, 41°W), mostly in cerrado- campo rupestre transition at 990-1700 m on gravelly or sandy soils among large boulders. Collected in flower from November to March, sporadically in September.

Dimerostemma episcopale is very close morphologically to D. grazielae. Both occur in a similar habitat at approximately the same latitude and altitude. Dimerostemma grazie- lae is endemic to Chapada dos Veadeiros in east- central Goias (near 14º S, 47ºW), whereas D. episcopale occurs farther east in the Chapada Diamantina near Rio de Contas, Bahia. These areas are geographically separated by ca. of six degrees of longitude. These species share similar leaves and cypsela. Dimerostemma episcopale is distinguished from D. grazielae in having broader outer phylla with mostly rounded to obtuse tips, not triangular, rigid, acute tips as in D. grazilae. Dimerostemma eoiscopale differs further in having larger, mostly yellow ray florests with lobes shallowly cut ( vs. mostly purplish with lobes shallowly cut or entire) and cypselae tending to be densely tuberculate (vs. mostly smooth).