Monographs Details: Polystichum
Authority: Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
Description:Genus Description - Petioles stout, with 4 or 5 vascular bundles, much shorter than the blades, beset with persistent, brownish, notably dimorphic scales, some broad and often toothed or cleft, others small, appressed, hair-like; blade scaly especially on the rachis and costae, otherwise glabrous or occasionally glandular, pinnate to subtripinnate, the principal pinnae subsessile on a narrow, very shortly petiolulate base, the uppermost ones reduced and confluent; pinnae or pinnules spinulose-toothed, mostly subfalcate; veins obscure, free, mostly once-forked; sori borne on the veins in one or more rows on each side of the midrib; indusium peltate, rotund, persistent; ferns with stout, scaly, erect or short-creeping rhizomes and clustered, firm, evergreen lvs. 135, cosmop.