Monographs Details: Trematolobelia macrostachys (Hook. & Arn.) Zahlbr.
Authority: Lammers, Thomas G. Revision of the Endemic Hawaiian genus Trematolobelia (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae), 61: 126-143.

Trematolobelia macrostachys van haleakalaensis H. St. John, Pacific Sci. 25: 67. 1971. Tremato lobelia haleakalaensis (H. St. John) O. Deg. & I. Deg., PI. Haw. Nati. Parks (rev. ed.): 461. 1983. Type: Hawaiian Islands. East Maui: Kïpahulu Valley, west part of valley, 3200 ft, seems to be found only in sites more exposed to wind, 6 Aug 1967, C. H. ¿amoureux & R. E. DeWreede 3859 (holotype: BISH [mounted on 2 sheets per Art. 8.3]; isotype: BISH)

Trematolobelia forbesii H. St. John, Pacific Sci. 36: 488. 1983. Type: Hawaiian Islands. West Maui: Honokõhau Drainage Basin, ridge to 'Eke ["Eeka"], main ridge, upper part, 27 Sep 1917, C. N. Forbes 362.M (holotype: BISH; isotypes: UC, US).

Trematolobelia macrostachys var. ligulata H. St. John, Pacific Sci. 36: 499. 1983. Type: Hawaiian Islands. Moloka'i: Hanalilolilo Trail, 1 mile from Waikolu Lookout, edge of gully in forest of ohia and olapa, very wet, epiphyte, 12 Jan 1972, T Pratt s.n (holotype: BISH; isotype: BISH).

Additional specimens examined. O'AHU. Ko'olau Mts.: Punalu'u-Kaluanui Trail, in pass, Bean 335 (NEB, UC ); Waikãne-Kahana-Schofield Trail, Bean 385 (NEB, UC); Waikãne-Schofield Trail, 2 Feb 1929, Bean s.n. (NEB); head of Poamoho Trail, pali overlooking Punalu'u Valley, Bryan 1498 (P, US); Kõnãhuanui, May 1912, Ceresole s.n. (BISH, NY, US, W); Poamoho Trail, Wahiawä, 20 Oct 1946, Cowan s.n. (NY, OSC); Anahulu Trail, Degener & Foster 12299 (BISH, F, NY); summit of Pig-God Trail, Punalu'u, Degener & Kwon 7802 (BISH, MO, NY, US, W[2], WIS); C.C.C, trail, 'Aiea, Degener & Martinez 11381 (W); W ridge of Pu'u Lanihuli, Eubank 115 (UC); Waikãne-Schofield Trail, Kahana-Wai'anaeuka divide, Fosberg 12335 (UC); Poamoho Trail, head of Punalu'u Valley, Fosberg 13331 (BISH, CAS, DS, F, GH); ridge between Kahana & Wahiawã valleys, Harris C242177 (GB); 'Aiea Ridge below Pu'u Kawaipo'o, 1 Dec 1951, Kondo s.n (US); Olympus trail, Kõnãhuanui, MacDaniels 91 (BH); Kõnãhuanui-Olympus trail, Mac Daniels 147 (BH); Lanihuli ridge trail, MacDaniels 186 (BM, MO); sine loc., Mann & Brigham 463 (BM, F, MASS, MO, NY, US); Waipi'o, ridge S of Kîpapa Gulch

MOLOKA'I. Wailau trail, S side, Cranwell 3384 (GB); top of Wailau Ridge, Cranwell 3427 (BISH, GB, S); head of Waikolu Valley, Cranwell et al. 3919 (GB, S); overlooking Waikolu Valley, Degener 7780 (MO, NSW, NY); head of Waikolu Valley, Degener & Tousley 22141 (B, BISH, MASS, NY, W); head of Waikolu Valley, Degener & Degener 23730 (W); near Pelekunu pali, Fagerlind & Skottsberg 6373 (S); Kamalõ, Faurie 559 (BM), Faurie 560 (BM); Poholua, Forbes 94.Mo (BISH, W); trail S out of Pëpë'opae Bog, Gusta/son 1277 (LAM); Püko'o, Mr. Conradt's place, Hitchcock 15068 (BISH, US); Mapulehu ridge trail, St. John et al. 23542 (US).

WEST MAUL Lahaina: Along trail, Pu'u Kukui, Carlquist 563 (RSA); N of summit of Pu'u Kukui, leg. W. Fleming, Degener 25176 (W); trail N of Pu'u Kukui summit, Degener et al. 25026 (W); Pu'u Kukui, Higashino 1290 (BISH, UC); Pu'u Kukui, Hitchcock 1481 7 (US); Pu'u Kukui trail, near Violet Lake, Perlman et al. 6884A (F, PTBG)

EAST MAUI. Makawao: Mauka of Makawao, Degener 7975 (B, MASS, MICH, NY); along Pipe-Line Trail, Olinda, Degener 7976 (B, NY, US); reservoir near beginning of Waikamoi flume above Olinda, Gustafson 1120 (LAM); jeep road from end of Olinda Road to reservoir at Waikamoi Stream, Lammers & Hobdy 5635 (OS); Ha'ikû Uka, edge of Waikamoi Gulch below dam, St. John 20356 (BISH, GB, MO). Hãna: Base of old cinder cone near N rim of Kïpahulu, Harrison 408 (BISH, NY, US); above Hana, upper drainage of Kawaipapa, Wood & Hobdy 7992 (PTBG), Wood & Hobdy 8012 (PTBG).

SINE LOC: Hillebrand s.n. (US, WU); Hillebrand 72 (K).

The circumscription of Trematolobelia macrostachys has varied over time. Hillebrand (1888) and Rock (1919) included all populations referable to Trematolobelia in this species. Wimmer (1953) excluded those from the Kohala Mountains of Hawai' i {T. grandi/olia), while Degener (1934a, 1936) also excluded those from Kaua'i (T. kauaiensis). St. John (1983) pared down the circumscription even more, removing the populations on Läna'i (T. auriculata), West Maui (T. forbesii), and the rest of Hawai'i (T. kohalaensis, T. lustriatilis, T. rociai vor. hawaiiensis, T. wimmeri), as well as some populations on O'ahu (7! singularis) and Moloka'i (T. rockii var. rockii). Lammers (1990) returned to a somewhat wider view of T. macrostachys, including within it as synonyms T. auriculata, T. forbesii, T lustriatilis, and T rockii var. rockii.

More detailed analysis of a larger body of specimens has led me to adopt a circumscription more like that of St. John (1983), but with two exceptions. First, as noted above, the populations in the Wai'anae Mountains of O'ahu would appear to be reproductively isolated from the rest of the populations and are segregated as Trematolobelia kaalae. Second, the West Maui populations, segregated by St. John (1983) as T forbesii, here are incorporated into T macrostachys, as the minor difference in pubescence of the staminal column used to distinguish the two scarcely seems to be of any consequence

St. John (1983) distinguished two hetero- nymic geographic varieties within Trematolobelia macrostachys: var. ligulata on Moloka'i and var. haleakalaensis on East Maui. These populations do differ a bit from those of the Ko'olau Mountains, typically in the averages and ranges of various quantitative characters. Though I have a preference to divide wide- spread species such as this into geographic subspecies [e.g., Clermontia arborescens (H. Mann) Hillebrand; Lammers, 1991], the degree of overlap in the values makes it impracticable in this case