Picramnia antidesma Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 27. 1788. P. antidesma var. normalis Kuntze. Rev. Gen. 1: 104. 1891. TYPE: JAMAICA. Swartz s.n. (HOLOTYPE: S; ISOTYPES: BM-2 sheets, M).
P. triandra Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 4: 535. 1812. TYPE: JAMAICA. Wright s.n. (not found).
P. cooperi D. Porter, J. Arnold Arbor. 54: 317. 1973. TYPE: PANAMA. Boca del Toro, G. Proctor Cooper 375 (HOLOTYPE: GH; ISOTYPES: BM, F, NY, US).
First described from Jamaica, subsp. antidesma is the most common picramnia in southwestern Mexico and is found sporadically in Central America and in Andean South America. While it is the only Picramnia found in Jamaica, it is not known from anywhere else in the West Indies, old reports from Hispaniola notwithstanding. Although the type of P. cooperi, a staminate-flowered specimen, is robust, it fits within the range of variation of subsp. antidesma. Several collec- tions of fruiting and pistillate plants from Costa Rica and Panama are unusually robust, and although they are included here under subspecies antidesma, it is possible that careful field studies may show that they deserve separate infraspecific recognition.