The genus falls into two very well marked sections of four species each on the basis of anther arrangement. Warburg designated these sections as Eucompsoneura and Coniostele. The advisability of raising the latter to generic rank has been considered. The androecium of this group is very different from that of Eucornpsoneura. In other genera, such as Virola, Iryanthera, and Dialyanthera, the anthers may be either dorsally connate or partially or completely free. In the Section Coniostele, however, the anthers are adnate to a remarkable obconical mass formed by the firmly connate swollen connectives. This appears a character of generic significance, but it is noted that in C. Ulei the connective mass is deeply concave at the apex, indicating a transition between the two sections of Compsoneura. In fruiting characters and in vegetative features the two sections cannot be distinguished. The conspicuous subparallel tertiary nerves of the leaves readily identify Compsoneura and indicate that the androecium differences of the two sections are less than generic. In view of these similarities, Warburg's conclu- sions are here supported.