Monographs Details: Guettarda divaricata (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.) Standl.
Authority: Maguire, Bassett. 1972. The botany of the Guayana Highland--part IX. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 23: 1-832.
Family:Rubiaceae
Description:Distribution and Ecology - Distribution: Venezuela, Colombia, British Guiana, Trinidad, and Tobago. BRITISH GUIANA. Basin of Rupununi River, near mouth of Charwair Creek, lat about 2° 35' N, 1-4 Nov 1937, A. C. Smith 2329. TOBAGO. Roxburgk-Parletuvier Road, 5 Jun 1925, Williams 11102; Logwood Park, Scarborough, 23 Jun 1909, Broadway 2949. TRINIDAD. Cedros, Fullerton, 6 Jun 1915, Broadway 8058; upper road to Limbre, 1867, Crueger 2479; western end of Monos Island, 4 Apr 1921, Britton, Britton & Brown 2726. VENEZUELA. Nueva Esparta: Copei, Margarita, Foldats 2815, 2808; Cerro Matasiete, Margarita, 20 Aug 1953, Foldats 2722. Bolívar: between Miamo and Guasipati, 3 Jun 1960, Steyermark 86251; region Upata-El Palmar, 11 Dec 1959, Ramia 2086; vicinity of Tumeremo, alt 305 m, 18 Dec 1944, Steyermark 60930; region Upata-Villa Lola, 5 Dec 1959, Ramia 2050; Hato El Pilar, El Palmar, 22 Aug 1959, Trujillo 2250; San Mateo, Bajo Paragua, alt 75 m, 10 Apr 1940, Williams 12830; entre San Felix y Puerto Ordaz, in Parque Caroní along Río Caroní near Puerto Ordaz, alt 20 m, 26-27 Jun 1964, Steyermark 94233; 1-10 km NW of Upata on road to San Felix, between Upata and Altagracia, alt 700 m, 31 Jul-1 Aug 1944, Steyermark 57691; Río Cuchivero, El Tigre, Williams 13301; El Palmar, 27 Apr 1940, Williams 12914; Parque Caroní, San Felix-Pto. Ordaz, Sep 1965, Aristeguieta 5885; La Paragua, Río Paragua, alt 240 m, Jul 1943, Cardona 685; Altiplanicie de Nuria, between camp and 2 km from Hato de Nuria, E of Miamo, alt 400 m, 14 Jan 1961, Steyermark 88413. Sucre: vicinity of Cristobal Colon, 5 Jan-22 Feb 1923, Broadway 379. Anzoategui: Nuevo Mamo, Oct 1964, Madriz & Ewel 103; cabeceras del Rio Guaraguara, cerca de Santomé, 17 Jun 1941, Pittier 14846. D.F.: Caracas, Jun 1948, Curran 352 M. Aragua: prope Colonia Tovar, 1854-55, Fendler 574; Maracay, Montaldo 3377, 3396, 3247, 3519, 3631, 3461; arriba de Turmero, Oct 1948, Standen 62; Agua Caliente, carretera Maracay-Choroni, vertiente sur, alt 600 m, 6 Jun 1959, Trujillo 4171. Carabobo: Caño Paso Andro, carretera Valencia-El Paito, 8 Aug 1959, Trujillo 4434; Valencia, El Morro, V 19; Hacienda Cura, San Joaquin, alt 430 m, 20 Jul 1968, Rojas 375; San Joaquin, 10 Jun 1968, Ferrari 432; vicinity of Valencia, alt 400-800 m, 12 Aug 1920, Pittier 9014. Cojedes: San Carlos, 31 May 1946, Velez 2762; San Carlos, 19 Jun 1940, Chardon 93. Portuguesa: llanos de Acarigua, 8 Apr 1925, Pittier 11731. Guarico: San Juan de los Morros, 19 Sep 1946, Curran 14 M; Estacion Biologica de los Llanos, Calabozo, Aristeguieta 4197, 4212, 5007; Valle de la Pascua hasta Espino, Aug 1955, Tamayo 4124. Barinas: 25 km from Barinas along road to San Cristobal, alt 300 m, 13 Jul 1964, Breteler 3993; 14 km from Barinas along road to Guanare, alt 200 m, 4 Sep 1964, Breteler 4200. Lara: entre Cujicito y Sarare, May, 1930, Saer 466; sabanas de Tucuyito, distrito Valencia, Sep 1941, Saer 832. Zulia: Perija district, 5 km W of Machiques, on Hacienda El Capitan, alt 150 m, 12 Oct 1966, de Bruijn 1158. COLOMBIA. Magdalena: savannal at Becerril, alt 100 m, 14 Sep 1943, Haught 3669; Río Casacará, 20 km S of Codazzi, alt 100 m, 23 May 1944, Haught 4174. Atlantico: Barranquilla and vicinity, Megua, May-Jul 1936, Bro. Elias 1423, 1456; trail from Usiacuri to Sabanalarga, alt 150 m, 19 Jul 1936, Dugand 994; Funck & Schlim 623; vicinity of Cartagena, 1920, Bro. Heriberto 345.

Discussion:

Dicrobotryum divaricatum H. & B. ex R. & S., Syst. Veg. 5: 221. 1819.

Guettarda xylosteoides H.B.K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 420. 1820.

Guettarda odorata of auth., not (Jacq.) Lam.

Guettarda elliptica apud Standl., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 7: 404. 1931, not G. elliptica Sw.

Guettarda parviflora apud Standl., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 7: 404. 1931, not G. parviflora Vahl.

Guettarda rusbyi apud Standl., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 7: 405. 1931, not G. rusbyi Standl.

Type. Prope Angostura (Ciudad Bolívar), Bolívar, Venezuela, Humboldt & Bonpland.

Recent collections from the general vicinity of the type locality of Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar), Venezuela, agree with the original descriptions of Guettarda xylosteoides H.B.K. and Dicrobotyrum divaricatum H. & B., and, as in the rest of the Venezuelan material examined belonging to this taxon, have an elongated corolla 14-22 mm long, mainly pilose, villous, or hirsutulous peduncles, petioles, lower midrib and lateral nerves of the leaves, and usually densely ciliolate margins of the leaf blades. The flowers are both tetramerous and pentamerous, rarely sexamerous, as shown in plate 292 of Guettarda xylosteoides H.B.K.

In his Rubiaceae of Venezuela (Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 7: 403-404. 1931), Standley cited material from Venezuela assigned to G. divaricata, G. elliptica, and G. parviflora. Examination of these specimens shows that all pertain to one taxon, namely, G. divaricata. Guettarda elliptica Sw. is limited to the Greater Antilles, Florida, and Mexico, while G. parviflora Vahl = G. odorata (Jacq.) Lam. is shown in the present treatment to be distributed mainly in the Lesser Antilles, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, with an extension south to Trinidad, Tobago, and Isla Margarita of Venezuela.

In his Rubiaceae of Colombia (Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 7: 65. 1930), Standley treated G. odorata (Jacq.) Lam. as a taxon having the leaves appressed-pilose beneath along the veins and with a corolla tube 10-15 mm long, and assigns to this species material collected from Cartagena and vicinity (Bro. Heriberto 345 and Jacquin’s type material described in part from Cartagena). The specimen of Bro. Heriberto 345 and other material I have examined from the vicinity of Cartagena, Colombia, agrees in all respects with G. divaricata (H. & B.) Standl., showing the more elongated corollas, more pubescent leaf blades with ciliolate margins, and more pubescent peduncles characteristic of G. divaricata. As indicated above under G. odorata, I have selected the Cuban plant mentioned in Jacquin’s original description as the lectotype of G. odorata (G. parviflora Vahl, G. parvifolia Sw.), and refer his Cartagena collection to G. divaricata, the latter taxon corresponding to all the material obtained from Cartagena and adjacent Atlantic Colombia.

Standley (Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 7: 405. 1931) assigns G. rusbyi Standi, to Venezuela, based on specimens from Cumana (Funck 644) and La Guaira (Karsten). Examination of the Funck 644 specimen at NY (the label states “Columbia, 1862”) shows that it must be referred to G. divaricata. Standley probably misidentified the specimen because it shows larger leaf blades than most of the G. divaricata from Venezuela, but the proportions of the leaves in Funck 644 are matched by such other Venezuelan specimens as Aristeguieta 5885 with leaf blades 6-8 × 2.5-3.8 cm, by Cardona 685 with blades up to 9 cm long, and by Pittier 14052 with blades up to 8 × 3 cm. The Karsten specimen from La Guaira comes from an area in which G. divaricata has been collected, and is also placed with that taxon. True G. rusbyi Standi, from Colombia (type locality, Natagaima, Huila) differs at once from G. divaricata in having an elliptic-oblong or oblong fruit much longer than broad, instead of as broad as or broader than long. Also, the peduncles in G. rusbyi are much longer (3.2-8.5 cm instead of 1.5-4.5 cm), and the leaf blades are generally much larger (3.7-12.5 × 1.8-5.5 cm) with more acutely to acuminately longer apices. The ovary and fruit varies from 4- to 6-celled, and the corollas from tetramerous to pentamerous to sexamerous. From the other related taxa, namely, G. odorata and G. elliptica, the longer than broad fruit is immediately characteristic of G. rusbyi.

Distribution:Venezuela South America| Colombia South America| Guyana South America| Trinidad and Tobago South America|