Monographs Details: Simira rubescens (Benth.) Bremek. ex Steyerm.
Authority: Maguire, Bassett. 1972. The botany of the Guayana Highland--part IX. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 23: 1-832.
Family:Rubiaceae
Description:Distribution and Ecology - Distribution. Venezuelan Guayana, Amazonian Brazil (Amapá Pará, Amazonas), Mato Grosso, Brazil, and Amazonian Peru. VENEZUELA. Bolívar: en la margen de la sabana, El Tigre cerca del Río Cuchivero, alt 90 m, 18 Jun 1940, Williams 13370; sabana de El Tigre, al pie del cerro, distrito Cedeño, alt 270 m, 25 Nov 1965, Ruiz Teran 2529; en las orillas del Medio Caura, Temblador, alt 100 m, 3 Apr 1939, Williams 11690; rebalsas del Orinoco, desembodacura del Río Mamanta, Ciudad Bolívar, Aug 1962, Aristeguieta 4873; rebalsas, Parque Caroní, San Felix-Puerto Ordaz, Sep 1965, Aristeguieta 5912; vicinity of waterfall of Río Caroní, vicinity of San Felix, 31 May 1960, Steyermark 86224; Parguaza River between mouth and El Carmen (50 river km upstream), alt 80-110 m, 3 Jan 1956, Wurdack & Monachino 41098. Apure: Las Piedras, alrededor de Puerto Paez, 4 May 1946, Velez 2647-Amazonas: Puerto Ayacucho, alt 100 m, May 1931, Holt & Blake 831; entre rocas graniticas en las orillas del riachuelo El Bagre, Puerto Ayacucho, alt 100 m, 20 May 1940, Williams 13025; 2 Jul 1942, Williams 15960; Isla Macará cerca de la confluencia del Río Padauiri, Río Negro, 15 Jan 1946, Cardona 1292. BRAZIL. Amapá: along Río Araguari, Porto Platón, 0° 44' N-51° 22' W, alt 67 m, 16 Aug 1961, Pires, Rodrigues & Irvine 50369; 15 Aug, 50333; Santo Antonio da Cachoeira, Río Jari, 0° 55' S, 52° 55' W, 30 Jul 1961, Egler & Irwin 46048; right bank of Rio Flechal, 1° 45' N-50° 58' W, 13 Aug 1962, Pires & Cavalcante 52517. Para: banks of Rio Piria, south of BR 22, 23 Aug 1964, Prance & Silva 58823; Bragança, campo alagado, 9 Apr 1955, Pires & Silva 4822; Igarapé Peixe Bei, 30 Aug 1949, Silva 325; Rio Piria, 1958, Froes 34622; 15 Sep 1937, Ducke 328; near Cassipa, Tapajos River region, Krukoff 1251; Upper Cupary River, plateau between the Xingu and Tapajos rivers, Krukoff 1078. Amazonas: Mata do Japihy, Manáos, 1945, Froes 20493; Jauarete, Vaupes, Rio Negro, 19 Oct 1945, Froes 21208; Rio Solimoes super Caicara, ad faucem lacus, 16 Nov 1940, Ducke 629; basin of Rio Madeira, Rio Livramento, near Livramento, Municipality Humayta, Krukoff 6569; Rio Negro super Santa Izabel loco Yacanum, ad ripas fluvii, 5 Mar 1936, Ducke 35429; Manáos, Estrada do Aleixo, silva leviter paludosa ad rivulum, 27 Dec 1932, Ducke 24381. Mato Grosso: Angostora, source of the Jatuaraha River, Machado River region, Dec 1931, Krukoff 1544. Terr. Acre: near mouth of Río Macauhan (tributary of Rio Yaco), lat 9° 21' S, long 69° W, Krukoff 5436. PERU. Loreto: Gamitanacocha, Rio Mazan, alt 100-125 m, 26 Jan 1935, Schunke 120.

Discussion:

Sprucea rubescens Benth., Hook. Jour. Bot. Kew Misc. 5: 230. 1853.

Sickingia tinctoria (H.B.K.) Schumann, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(6): 228. 1889, and later authors, not Simira tinctoria Aubl. nor Sickingia tinctoria (Aubl.) Lemée.

Sickingia japurensis Schumann, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(6): 229. 1889.

Sickingia xanthostema Schumann, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(6): 229. 1889.

Type. Ad Gapó do Manaquiry, ad oram meridionalem flum. Amazonum, ad ostium flum. Solimoes, Amazonas, Brazil, Jun 1851, R. Spruce 1601.

This taxon has been confused by Schumann and most later authors with Simira tinctoria Aublet, from which it may be differentiated by characters already discussed under S. tinctoria. In his paper on Simira tinctoria, Bremekamp [Acta Bot. Neerl. 3(1): 153. 1954] made two new combinations under the genus Simira, S. erythroxylon and S. longifolia. However, in his discussion of Sprucea rubescens, he merely indicated that the name was “available for the new combination” without actually publishing it as such. Nevertheless, as he has annotated certain herbarium specimens with the new combination Simira rubescens (Benth.) Bremekamp, I have incorporated his name in the presently published work as a new combination.

One finds considerable variation in the pubescence covering the external surface of the corolla, calyx tube, and hypanthium, as well as in the shape and pubescence of the calyx lobes. Although Bentham described the external surface of the corolla as glabrous, the isotype at NY has this portion of the flower densely pubescent and papillate. This NY sheet likewise has the calyx and hypanthium densely pubescent-papillate externally, a character not mentioned by Bentham. Schumann’s attempt to separate S. tinctoria of authors (= S. rubescens) from S. japurensis, based on the extent of the division of the calyx, size of corolla, and proportionate length of stamens, does not hold true, so far as specimens examined, nor can his color difference, stated for the anther and pollen of S. xanthostema, be relied upon to distinguish 5. xanthostema from S. japurensis and S. rubescens. In his remarks concerning Sprucea rubescens, Bentham (Hook. Jour. Bot. Kew Misc. 5: 229. 1853) states that the “anthers” are “pale yellow, but becoming quite vermillion in drying.” Although there is a tendency for the base of the hypanthium in material passing as 5. japurensis to be more attenuate and to extend into a somewhat longer pedicellate portion than in most material of S. rubescens, this is not a constant character nor does it appear to be correlated with any other character. Most of the Venezuelan specimens show the external surface of the corolla glabrous, whereas the Brazilian material varies from nearly glabrous corollas to densely strigillose. The filaments vary from pubescent ventrally especially below the middle in Venezuelan material to glabrous or pubescent in Brazilian specimens. The calyx lobes vary from shallow and suborbicular-rounded to ovate-suborbicular and apiculate to ovate-oblong or lanceolate-oblong and acute.

Distribution:Venezuela South America| Brazil South America| Peru South America|