Monographs Details: Xylaria clusiae K.F.Rodrigues, J.D.Rogers & Samuels
Authority: Samuels, Gary J. & Rogerson, Clark T. 1990. New ascomycetes from the Guayana Highland. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 64: 165-183.
Family:Xylariaceae
Description:Species Description - Stromata stipitato-capitata, 3.5 cm usque alta; stipes angusto, 0.5-1 m m diam., 3 c m usque longus, cinereus vel niger; capitulum tympaniforme, subglobosum, globosum vel hemisphaericum, 2-5 m m latum, 2-3 m m altum, extus cinereum vel nigrum, intus album, textura mollis, superficie papillis ostiolaribus exceptis laevis. Perithecia 0.3 m m diam., ostiolis papillatis. Asci 58-150 X 7-15 µm (p. sp.), apex annulo iodo coerulescenti provisus. Ascosporae fere nigrae (KOH), unicellulares, latissime ovales vel fere globosae, inequilaterales, laeves, (11.6-)12.8- 16.7(-18) X 8-15 µm, rima germinativa recta vel undulata, sporae aequilonga. Status anamorphicus ignotis. Stromata capitate-stipitate, 1-3.5 cm tall; stipe fine, 0.5-1 mm diam., smooth, cinereous to black; cap tympaniform, subglobose, globose, or hemispherical, 2-5 mm wide, 2-3 mm high, smooth

Discussion:

Hab.: In Clusia spp.

Holotypus: Guyana (Samuels 6419, N Y )

Anamorph: None known.

Characteristics in Culture. Colonies grown on oatmeal agar (Difco) at 20°C under cool white fluorescent light 2-2.5 c m diam., pale orange to pale salmon, aerial mycelium cottony and abundant, ultimately producing numerous erect, sterile, orange to salmon, 5-7 mm long stromatic outgrowths scattered throughout the colony

TYPE. GUYANA. Mt. Wokomung, summit, 05°05'N, 59º50'W, elev. 1650 m, on decaying leaves of Clusia sp. (Boom 9064), Jul 1989, Samuels {6419), Boom, Bacchus (holotype N Y , isotype BRG). Additional Specimens Examined. COLOMBIA. Valle: Mun. de Tunia, 93 k m S of Cali, Panamerican Highway, Reserva Forestal El Guyabo, elev. 1800 m, on leaves of Clusiaceae, 10 Nov 1988, Franco 146 (NY, Samuels culture 88-76).

VENEZUELA. Bolivar: Chimanta Massif, central section, scrub forest near summit camp, elev. 1925 m, on dead fallen Clusia leaf, 2 Feb 1955, Steyermark & Wurdack 370 (NY). Amazonas: San Carlos de Rio Negro, bana at edge of town, 0P05'N, 67*'04'W, elev. ca. 140 m, on leaf of C/M5/fl sp., 9 Apr 1984, Samuels 1353 (NY, VEN); Rio Guainia, forest edge S and E of Maroa, elev. 130 m, 4 Jul 1959, on dead leaf (? Clusia sp.) on forest floor, Wurdack & Adderiey {Maguire 43324) (NY, K); Cerro le la Neblina, along Rio Mawarinuma, just outside Cafion Grande, vie. Neblina Base Camp, 00'*50'N, 66nO'W, elev. ca. 140 m, on leaf of Clusia sp., Apr, May 1984, Samuels 1906 (NY, VEN).

GUYANA. Potaro-Siparuni Region, VIII: Potaro Subregion, VIII, Mt. Ayanganna, eastem side on steep slopes, 05º25'N, 59º55'W, elev. 1250-1350 m, on decaying leaves of Clusia spp., 11,12 Mar 1987, Samuels {5081), Pipoly, Gharbarran, Chin & Edwards (NY). Upper Mazaruni Rtver Region: Karowtipu Mt., between camp and peak on W side of mountain, 05º45'N, 60"'35'W, elev. 920-1080 m, on decaying leaf, 24 Apr 1987, Boom (7682), Doorjoohan, Gopaul (NY)

Notes. Xylaria clusiae was reported by Rogers et al. (1988) as Xylaria sp. It was not described as new at the time because the only material available was not well enough developed to serve as type material. W e have since examined several specimens of this fungus which is seemingly common on recently fallen, little decayed leaves of Clusia species. The Venezuelan and Guyanan collections are from sandstone areas ofthe Guayana Highland, while the Colombian collection was made near Cali, on the Pacific coast and considerably west ofthe Guayana Highland. We do not know how many species of Clusia are infected. Because of the host specificity, and because the stroma appears soon after the leaves are shed, it is likely that X. clusiae is endophytic in living, healthy leaves. Xylaria clusiae is reminiscent of X. aristata, a foliicolous species with much smaller ascospores. W e have isolated ascospores from two collections of X. clusiae (Samuels 6419, Franco 146); the colonies from both isolates remained sterile.