Monographs Details: Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Authority: Schweinfurth, Charles. 1967. Orchidaceae of the Guayana Highland. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 14: 69-214.
Family:Orchidaceae
Description:Distribution and Ecology - BRITISH GUIANA. Pakaraima Mts., Kamarang River-Wenamu Trail, Samwarakna-tipú (Holi-tipú), 1100 m alt., frequent terrestrial in savanna, flowers mauve and lip orange with white center, November 9, 1951, B. Maguire ir D. B. Fanshawe 32474. VENEZUELA. Bolivar: Mt. Roraima, 1660 m alt., E. F. Im Thurn 42; same locality, 2600 m alt., McConnell ir Quelch 686; same locality, summit of Roraima, on northwest portion north and northwest of Summit Camp, 2620-2740 m alt., terrestrial with dark purple stems 2 ft tall, leaves erect and coriaceous, purple or dull green, flower deep blood-red, lip orchid or blood-red on outer half having an orange-yellow center with a white patch on either side, September 27, 1944, J. A. Steyermark 58855; same locality, on forested southwestfacing quebrada near Rondon Camp, 2040 m alt., terrestrial, flowers deep orchid, lip having a yellow callus surrounded by cream-white, September 25, 1944, Steyermark 58686; same locality, vicinity of Rondon Camp, on southwest-facing slopes, 2040 m alt., terrestrial in meadow, Steyermark 58940; Ptari-tepui, on forested south-facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave Rock" above "Cave Camp," 1810 m alt., terrestrial with coriaceous leaves and green to brown bracts, flower cream-white, lip white with yellow center, October 29, 1944, Steyermark 59516; Sororopdn-tepui, crest of cerro between east and west ends, 2255 m alt., common, flower deep rose, lip rose with cream-color or yellow patch in center, November 14, 1944, Steyermark 60158; mesa between Ptari-tepui and Sororopan-tepui, in vicinity of "Misia Kathy Camp," 1615 m alt., Steyermark 60275; Auyan-tepui, 1000-2000 m alt., F. Cardona 46; same locality, G. H. H. Tate 1212 (sterile); same locality, 1100 m alt., Tate 1220a; same locality, 1850 m alt., Tate 1225; same locality, 2200 m alt., Tate 1240, 1241; same locality, Alto Caroni, 2100 m alt., flowers white, January, 1949, F. Cardona 2739; same locality, 1500 m alt., flowers purple, January, 1949, Cardona 2747; same locality, summit, 2300 m or more alt., exposed positions, in nearly bare sandstone on thin capping of soil on sandstone, G. C. K. Dunsterville 782 (lip callus relatively simple); same locality, cumbre de la parte norte de la seccion sur (division occidental del cerro): a lo largo del Rio Chunin, vecindad del campamento sur, sureste del "Second Wall," 1690 m alt., bordering zanjones, terrestrial, sepals and petals deep rose orchid or creamy white, lip rose-orchid with orange crest, or white with orange crest, column with a black tip. May 3, 1964, Steyermark 93265, 93266; same locality, cumbre de la parte sur: meseta de piedra arenisca, entre "Oso Woods Camp" y "Libertador," 2050-2300 m alt., on dry rocky portions of plateau, terrestrial, stem 1 m tall, sepals and petals dark red, lip dark red with orange crest. May 15, 1964, Steyermark 93909 (lip imperfect); Cerro Guaiquinima, Rio Paragua, 1 km east of Cumbre Camp, 1800 m alt., about thickets, occasional terrestrial or epiphytic. flowers lavender-pink, December 26, 1951, B. Maguire 32771; same locality, altitude and flower-color, December 30, 1951, Maguire 32844; Ilu-tepui, Gran Sabana, on lower slopes, 1000-1300 m alt., occasional terrestrial, stems 2 m high, flowers pink, February 8, 1952, Maguire 33256; same locality, on lower slopes, 1000 m alt., in partial opening in woodland near Camp No. 1, occasional terrestrial, flowers lavender-pink, lip white toward the base with a yellow center, March 10, 1952, Maguire 33339; Sororopan-tepui 1800 m alt., abundant in cumbre, flowers rich pink, December 18, 1952, B. Maguire ir J. J. Wurdack 33945; Churi-tepui (Murú-tepui), in upper cumbre, 2250-2300 m alt., occasional terrestrial, flowers orange-red, January 26, 1953, J. J. Wurdack 34221 (lip with subentire mid-lobe); same locality, northwest cumbres, 2300-2350 m alt., in upper part of upper cumbre, infrequent terrestrial, flowers reddish orange, February 3, 1953, Wurdack 34306;

Distribution and Ecology - Chimanta Massif, northwestern part of summit of Abacapa-tepui, 2125-2300 m alt., terrestrial in Bonnetia forest, erect stems dark purple, 5-10 ft tall, leaves rigidly erect, deep green above and dull green beneath, flowers pale yellow, column pale green and brownish at tip, April 13, 1953, J. A. Steyermark 74862; same locality, on plateau of southeast-facing upper shoulder of Apacara-tepui, 2000 m alt., terrestrial in elfin forest formation, erect stems wine-purple, leaves thickly fleshy and coriaceous, deep green above and paler dull green beneath, flowers orchid-purple with lip deeper colored on lower half, June 19, 1953, Steyermark 75715; same locality, altitude and date, rachis green, pedicel, ovary and flowers pale green to pale yellow with deeper yellow column, Steyermark 75720; same locality, east-central portion of summit of Apacara-tepui, 2450-2500 m alt., terrestrial with stem dark purple, leaves erect-ascending and coriaceous, dull green above and dark purple beneath, bracts dark purple, flowers deep brick rose-red or coral-red, June 21-22, 1953, Steyermark 75907; same locality. Central Section, rocky edge of escarpment above Middle Falls of Rio Tirica below Summit Camp, 1925 m alt., locally frequent terrestrial, erect stems shining and wine purple, leaves rigid-coriaceous, ascending and wine-purple, pedicels ascending and yellow-green, sepals and petals dull pale yellow, lip erect, yellow with 3 lobes white and a golden yellow callus, February 5, 1955, J. A. Steyermark & J. J. Wurdack 496; same locality altitude and date, stems up to 2 m high, leaves olive green, pedicels wine-red, sepals and petals brick-red, lip orchid with deep wine-red base and yellow and white callus, Steyermark & Wurdack 497; same locality, swampy depression in wet savanna along east branch of headwaters of Rio Tirica, 2120 m alt., frequent, 0.5 m tall, leaves ascending, deep green above and dull green beneath, pedicels ascending and greenish yellow, flowers orange-yellow, column greenish yellow and angled along median hne, February 12, 1955, Steyermark & Wurdack 770; region of Uriman, high flooded plateau of Aprada-tepui, 1400-1500 m alt., August-September 1953, Bernardi 935 (no flowers); Cerro de las Guacamayas, Rio Avequi, 900 m alt., September 6, 1954, Bernardi 1668; Auyantepui, plateau, central part, about 2000 m alt., in shrubby savanna, terrestrial, flowers yellow, April 1956, E. Foldats 2634; same locality, 1100 m alt., in rather dry shrubby savanna, terrestrial, flowers purple, April 1956, Vareschi & Foldats 4640; same locality, 2300 m alt., small terrestrial and lithophytic, flowers yellow or orange, April 1956, Vareschi & Foldats 4865, 4909; near summit of Sierra de Lema, on uppermost part of sandstone bluffs at the headwaters of Rio Chicanan, 80 km (in a straight line) to the southeast of El Dorado, lat. 6°5'N., long. 62°W., 650 m alt., epiphyte on tree, flowers orchid-rose, August 29, 1961. J. A. Steyermark 89631. Amazonas: Cerro Duida, southeast-facing sandstone bluffs near Cano Negro (tributary of Caño Iguapo), 153,S m alt., on face of moist exposed cliff (with large bromeliad, Brocchinia Tatei), terrestrial, leaves coriaceous, deep green above and dull green beneath, rachis and pedicels pale green, sepals and petals white, lip usually white, pale yellow in center at base and on tip of midlobe, August 26, 1944, J. A. Steyermark 58031; Cerro Marahuaca, 1000 m alt., B. Maguire & B. Maguire Jr. 29208; Cerro Duida, Rio Cunucunuma, in Culebra Creek drainage, 1500 m alt., terrestrial in Bonnetia-Byrsonima cretacea forest, flowers pink, lip with red base and yellowish center, November 19, 1950, B. Maguire, R. S. Cowan & J. J. Wurdack 29554;

Distribution and Ecology - Cerro Huachamacari, Rio Cunucunuma, 1500 m alt., on dry diagonal ledge on escarpment face, locally common, flowers white, December 5, 1950, Maguire, Cowan & Wurdack 29857; same locality, altitude and date, above diagonal ledge on escarpment face, leaves reddish green above, flowers deep magenta with white center, Maguire, Cowan & Wurdack 29875; same locality, 1900 m alt., among rocks at rim of northeast escarpment in cumbre, terrestrial, flowers yellow with lip reddish orange at base, December 11, 1950, Maguire, Cowan & Wurdack 30149; same locality, altitude and date, along rim of northeast escarpment in cumbre, occasional terrestrial, flowers redpurple, lip white with yellow fornices, Maguire, Cowan & Wurdack 30150; same locality, in cumbre along right fork of Caño de Dios near Summit Camp, 1800 m alt., terrestrial in dense woodland, flowers white, December 13, 1950, Maguire, Coioan ir Wurdack 30186; same locality, in cumbre between Summit Camp and west escarpment rim, 1800 m alt., occasional terrestrial, flowers white, December 14, 1950, Alaguire, Cowan & Wurdack 30223; same locality, altitude and date, in cumbre west of Caño de Dios, terrestrial in low bush, flowers cream-color, Maguire, Cowan ir Wurdack 30236, 30238; Serrania Parii, Rio Pani, Caño Asisa, Rio Ventuari, in cumbre along west rim north of Camp Caño head, 2000 m alt., terrestrial, flowers pink, lip with orange-yellow spot, February 4, 1951, R. S. Cowan & J. J. Wurdack 31212; Serrania Yutaje, Rio Manapiare, Cerro Yutaje, on dry slopes on right branch of Cafio Yutaje, 1300 m alt., frequent terrestrial among boulders, flowers purple-lavender, February 9, 1953, B. & C. K. Maguire 35112; Serrania Yutaje, Rios Manapiare and Ventuari, 1500 m alt., terrestrial, flowers bright yellow, March 2, 1953, B. & C. K. Maguire 35446; same locality, Cerro Coro-Coro, 1500 m alt., occasional terrestrial on rocks, flowers deep lavender, March 2, 1953, B. & C. K. Maguire 35463; Cerro de la Neblina, Rio Yatua, at base of escarpment east of Camp 3, 1750 m alt, locally frequent in dry duff, "tepals cream; lip white," December 27, 1953, B. Maguire, J. J. Wurdack & G. S. Bunting 36945. A widespread and very A-ariable species extending from the West Indies (E. secundum) through northern South America, COLOMBIA, VENEZUELA (E. Lindenii), ECUADOR to PERU (E. dichotomum) and BOLIMA (E. brachyphyllum).

Discussion:

Epidendrum dichotomum Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 101. 1827.

Epidendrum Lindenii Lindl., Bot. Reg. 31: Misc. p. 48, no. 59. 1845, not E. Lindenii Lindl., 1843.

Epidendrum brachyphyllum Lindl., Fol. Orch. Epidendrum 72, no. 225. 1853.

Epidendrum inconstans Ames, Bull. Torrey Club 58: 350. 1931.

Distribution:Guyana South America| Venezuela South America|