Monographs Details: Epidendrum durum Lindl.
Authority: Schweinfurth, Charles. 1967. Orchidaceae of the Guayana Highland. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 14: 69-214.
Family:Orchidaceae
Scientific Name:Epidendrum durum Lindl.
Description:Distribution and Ecology - BRITISH GUIANA. Hab. ? Schomburgk 1232 (type of E. durum). VENEZUELA. Bolivar: Mt. Roraima, summit, 2670 m alt., Im Thurn 51, 296 (type of Epidendrum alsum), 322 (type of E. montigenum) ; same locality, autumn 1898, McConnell ir Quelch 694, 699; same locality, leaves acute, flowers small, yellowish, pendulous, November 24, 1927, G. H. H. Tate 391; same locality, flowers pink, nodding, November 26, 1927, Tate 436; same locality and altitude, in rock crevices, flowers rose, January 9, 1939, A. S. Pinkus 99; same locality and altitude, abundant in marshy soil and in rock crevices, flowers yellow, January, 1939, A. S. Pinkus 103; same locality, on rock in the lower woods, about 2100 m alt., January, 1910, E. Ule 8598 (type of E. Ulei) ; same locality, on northwest portion, north and northwest of Summit Camp, 2620-2740 m alt., terrestrial at base of slopes of morro with other matted vegetation, stem erect, 2-3 ft tall, dull purple, leaves coriaceous, revolute, deep olive green and often with lavender above and dull and paler beneath, inflorescence nodding, with grass-green rachis, flower dull yellow or deep rose without and pinkish or white within, lip rich yellow with greenish base or orchid and white, September 27, 1944, J. A. Steyermark 58812, 58836; Auydn-tepui, cumbre de la parte sureste del brazo noroeste (divisi6n occidental del cerro) : faldas sobre piedras igneas, vecindad del "Rio Lomita Camp," 1800 m alt., terrestrial along stream banks, stems and spreading branches yellow-fulvous. May 10, 1964, Steyermark 93616; same locality, cumbre de la parte norte de la secci6n sur (division occidental del cerro): suelo arenisco entre "Drizzly Camp" y "Second Wall," 1660-1800 m alt., terrestrial in wet savanna bordering sandstone exposures along small stream, stems erect, yellow-brown, 0.7-1 m tall, capsule olive green with golden yellow ribs. May 11, 1964, Steyermark 93699; Ptari-tepui, 2000-2200 m alt., in Bonnetia roraimae forest on southwest- facing shoulder, terrestrial with erect stems 3-4 ft tall, leaves coriaceous, deep green above and silvery beneath, rachis rich green, flower pale yellow, column rich green, November 2, 1944, Steyermark 59733; 5ame locality, 2200 m alt., in Brocchinia-Stegolepis-Heliamphora swamp on southwest-facing shoulder, common terrestrial, leaves coriaceous, olive green above and silvery beneath, flower pale greenish yellow with green column, November 2, 1944, Steyermark 59783; mesa between Ptari-tepui and Sororopan-tepui, in vicinity of "Misia Kathy Camp," 1615 m alt., leaves erect, rich green above and silvery beneath, flowers creamcolor with cream-white lip and pale green column, November 15-17, 1944, Steyermark 60247 (plant slender) ; Cerro Guaiquinima, Alto Rio Paragua, 1940 m alt., October, 1943, F. Cardona 931, 1098, 1124; same locality, in bog, 1 km east of Cumbre Camp, 1800 m alt., terrestrial, flowers whitish, December 26, 1951, B. Maguire 32775 (plant slender); same locality, in open savanna bog, 1 km south of Cumbre Camp, 1800 m alt., frequent terrestrial, flower waxy, bronze-yellow, December 29, 1951, Maguire 32809; same data as last, flowers white, December 29, 1951, Maguire 3281; Ilu-tepui, Gran Sabana, between "North Peak" and "Central Plateau," 2300-2600 m alt., occasional terrestrial in dense "moss" forest, flowers greenish white and waxy, March 15, 1952, Maguire 33413; same locality, on slopes below uppermost west-facing escarpment, occasional terrestrial on open wet rocks, 2300 m alt., flowers white, March 20, 1952, Maguire 33520; Auyantepui, central part of plateau, near El Oso encampment, about 1900 m alt., terrestrial, about 1.7 m high, scarce in sunny places, flowers yellow-green, April, 1956, E. Foldats 2623; Auyan-tepui, summit, near Oso woods, about 2150 m alt., in open grassy place mixed with small bromeliad-like growths, beside open flat river-bed; also near Rio Lomita camp, about 1800 m alt., in shrubs beside small stream, G. C. K. Dunsterville 862 (as E. alsum); Churi-tepui (Muru-tepui), upper cumbre, 2250-2300 m alt., infrequent terrestrial, "tepals yellow; lip cream," January 26, 1953, J. J. Wurdack 34228;

Distribution and Ecology - Chimanta Massif, 2000-2150 m alt., above southeast-facing upper shoulder on slope leading to summit of Apacara-tepui, in lower mixed Bonnetia forest, terrestrial up to 8 ft high, leaves coriaceous, olive green above and paler beneath, sepals subcoriaceous, olive green to pale yellow, petals greenish yellow, lip longer with lobes infolded and meeting in center, June 20, 1953, J. A. Steyermark 75807; same locality, east-central portion of summit of Apacara-tepui, 2450-2500 m alt., terrestrial in large swamp, stem erect, 3-4 ft tall, leaves coriaceous, olive green above and pale green beneath, sepals and petals olive green, lip white, cohimn green, June 21-22, 1953, Steyermark 75941; same locality. Central Section, rocky edge of escarpment above Middle Falls of Rio Tirica below Summit Camp, 1925 m alt., locally frequent terrestrial with stem 1.5 m tall and 1 cm in diameter, leaves ascending, coriaceous, olive green and shining above and pale green beneath, flowers dull yellow, February 5, 1955, J. A. Steyermark & J. J. Wurdack 459; same locality, vicinity of Upper Falls of Rio Tirica above Summit Camp, 1940-1950 m alt., locally frequent along rivulet at base of falls, leaves coriaceous, olive, inflorescence arched-drooping, sepals and petals dull yellow edged with white, lip greenish yellow and white, February 7, 1955, Steyermark & Wurdack 538; same locality, rocky escarpment between west and east branches of headwaters of Rio Tirica, 2260 m alt., locally frequent terrestrial, leaves ascending, dull green above and paler beneath, buds olive, February 13, 1955, Steyermark ir Wurdack 820; Chimanta Massif, Torono-tepui, on dry side of Middle Falls of Rio Tirica, below Summit Camp, 1760 m alt., locally frequent terrestrial, leaves coriaceous, olive above, silvery white with green midrib beneath, peduncles, bracts and pedicels rich green, sepals pale green without and greenish white within, petals greenish white, lip greenish white with brownish tip, March 1, 1955, Steyermark & Wurdack 1228. Amazonas: Mt. Duida, 1350-1900 m alt., moist slopes of Savanna Hills, August 1928-April 1929, G. H. H. Tate 471, 735; same locality, 1700-1980 m alt., Brocchinia Hills, terrestrial on dry slopes, stems erect, 3 ft tall, leaves coriaceous, rich green, flowers dull tawny yellow, September 1, 1944, Steyermark 58147; Cerro ^'avi, 2200 m alt., terrestrial, over 1 m tall, March 1-3, 1947, K. D. Phelps & C. B. Hitchcock 66; Cerro Sipapo (Paraque), between Campo Grande and summit of Peak 1, 1950 m alt., frequent terrestrial on savanna hummocks, floAvers greenish orange, December 12, 1948, B. Maguire & L. Politi 27602; same locality, on savanna slopes above Savanna Camp, 1650 m alt., frequent terrestrial, flowers yellowish, December 20, 1948, Maguire ir Politi 27798; same locality, in boggy savanna in lower Cano Negro, 1400 m alt., occasional terrestrial, flowers yellow, January 1, 1949, Maguire ir Politi 28091; same locality, in boggy savanna, in upper basin of central drainage canyon of east escarpment, 2000 m alt., frequent terrestrial, flowers brown-orange, January 14, 1949, Maguire & Politi 28343; Cerro Huachamacari, Rio Cunucunuma, on summit of East Ridge No. 1, 1800 m alt., frequent terrestrial up to 1 m high, flowers yellow-orange, December 8. 1950, B. Maguire, R. S. Coioan & J. J. Wurdack 30052; same locality, in marshy scrub savanna near southeast escarpment in cumbre, 1900 m alt., frequent terrestrial, up to 1 m high, flowers waxy, greenish yellow, December 11, 1950, Maguire, Cowan ir Wurdack 30145; Serrania Parú, Rio Parii, Caño Asisa, Rio Ventuari, in cumbre just south of head of Camp Caño, 2000 m alt., occasional (but rarely seen flowering), flowers brownish yellow, February 2, 1951, R. S. Cowan & J. J. Wurdack 31180

Distribution and Ecology - Cerro de la Neblina, Rio Yatua, in savanna 5 km west of Cumbre Camp, 1900 m alt., occasional terrestrial, flowers cream-color, January 6, 1954, B. Maguire, J. J. Wurdack & G. S. Bunting 37128; same locality and data, flowers pale orange, Maguire, Wurdack & Bunting 37129; same locality, in west escarpment savanna, 2 km north of Cumbre Camp, 1800 m alt., frequent terrestrial, flowers old gold, January 12, 1954, Maguire, Wurdack & Bunting 37237; same locality and data, occasional terrestrial, flowers pale cream-color, January 12, 1954, Maguire, Wurdack ir Bunting 37238; same locality, in savannas 5-18 km southwest of Cumbre Camp, 1900-2100 m alt., occasional, flowers brownish yellow, December 1-2, 1957, B. Maguire, J. J. Wurdack & C. K. Maguire 42275; vecindades del salto en la ladera escarpada de arenisca, a lo largo del afluente Este del Rio Venamo, en bosque enano sobre el hombrillo superior, 1400-1450 m alt., in colonies on moist rocks at base of falls, stems erect, green and orange-yellow, leaves coriaceous, divaricately spreading, deep green above and silvery beneath, rachis of inflorescence pale green, flower pale green, January 3, 1964, Steyermark ir Dunsterville 92651. The West Indies, BRITISH GUIANA? and BRAZIL (type of E. carnosum).

Discussion:

Epidendrum carnosum Lindl., Hook. Jour. Bot. 3: 87. 1841.

Epidendrum alsum Ridl., Timehri 5: 202. 1886; Ridl. ex Oliver, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. II 2: 281. 1887.

Epidendrum montigenum Ridl., Timehri 5: 203. 1886; Ridl. ex Oliver, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. II 2: 282. 1887.

Epidendrum Ulei Schltr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 6: 124. 1914.

Distribution:Venezuela South America| Guyana South America|