Monographs Details: Eugenia muricata DC.
Authority: Maguire, Bassett. 1969. The botany of the Guayana Highland-part VIII. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 18: 1-290.
Family:Myrtaceae
Scientific Name:Eugenia muricata DC.
Description:Distribution and Ecology - BOLIVIA. Rurrenabaque, elev 300 m, 23 Nov 1921 (fl), Cardenas 1785 ( N Y ),White 2051 (fr) ( N Y ) ; junction of Rivers Beni and Madre de Dios, Aug 1886 (fl),Rusby 594 (MICH). BRAZIL. Amazonas: "Prov. Rio Negro," "ad Topinambarana,"Martius (M, type!); "sylvis ad Coari," Martius (M, paratype); "ad ripamflum. Amaz.," Martius (M, type of E. riparia). Para: Capoeira do Instituto Agronomicodo Norte, Belem, Nov 1950 (fr), Guedes sn ( M I C H ) ; Belem, cafezal doI.A.N., 17 Nov 1949, Guedes 217 (fr, U S ) , 217 (fl, M I C H ) ; Monte Alegre, regiaode Colonia da Mulata, 28 Sep 1953 (fl), Froes 30410 ( M I C H ) ; banks of Rio Piria,S of Curapati, road from Braganga to Viseu, 9 Nov 1965 (fr). Prance & Pennington2045 ( M I C H ) ; Amapa: Serro do Navio, along Rio Amapari, elev 70-300 m, 23-26Nov 1954 (imm fr). Cowan 38546, 38631 (both M I C H ) ; Rio Araguari, Aug-Sep1961 (hud), Pires ct al 50579, 50887 (both M I C H ) . F R E N C H GUIANA.' "Leblond113" [= ?Richard 72] (G, originally det as E. polystachya; cf Field Mus. neg.23578); Richard 76 (P, type of E. muricata ß guyanensis).

Discussion:

fEugenia rypdocarpa Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Peruv. & Chil. 4: pi. 416. ined. ( ?1802).

Eugenia riparia D C , DC.'Prodr. 3: 283. 1828.

?Eugenia rutidocarpa Ruiz & Pavon ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 865. 1832.

?Eugenia rugosa Ruiz ex Berg, Linnaea 27: 300. 1856.

Eugenia muricata p guyanensis Berg, Linnaea 30: 695. 1861.

1958, in the Flora of Peru (Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 13(4): 730), I discussed the taxonomy and nomenclature of the warty-fruited species of the complex centering around Eugenia polystachya; see also under that species in this paper. O n the basis of study of a limited amount of material mostly from the upper Amazon basin, it seemed to m e that the complex comprised but a single species, for which I took up provisionally the name E. riparia. Recently I have studied additional material from the Guianas and elsewhere in eastern South America. It now appears that the complex includes at least two species, the present one with coarsely warty fruit, greenbronze pubescence and acute, deciduous bracteoles, and another species with smooth fruit, gray-green or gray pubescence and obtuse, connate, persistent bracteoles. Unfortunately, fruiting material of the second species is hardly known, and it may eventually have to be divided into two or more additional taxa. The oldest name for the smooth-fruited plant is E. polystachya.

The warty-fruited plants, treated here under the name of Eugenia muricata, comprise a widely distributed lowland species that ranges from French Guiana to Amazonian Peru and Bohvia, but so far has not been discovered in the Orinoco drainage. Even when not in fruit E. muricata can usually be distinguished from plants of the E. polystachya alliance by the very different bracteoles beneath the flower. The warts on the fruit are not present in young flowering specimens, but are readily discernible as soon as the fruit begins to develop after anthesis.

The type-material of Eugenia muricata, which I was permitted to study at M in 1966, includes one sheet showing the fruit character and the acute, deciduous bracteoles, annotated by de Candolle (cf Field Mus. neg. 19968); this may stand as lectotype; it is labelled "Prov. Rio Negro ad Topinambarana." There is another sheet evidently of the same gathering, and also two sheets in bud, named by Berg, both showing the acute and nearly glabrous bracteoles of this species, the locality given as "sylvis ad Coari, prov. RN." The type-locality of E. muricata is thus on the upper Amazon in northwestern Brazil.

The type of Eugenia riparia (cf Field Mus. neg. 19991), when compared directly with that of E. muricata, proves beyond any reasonable doubt to represent the same species. The bracteoles on this flowering specimen are smooth and nearly glabrous, sharply deltoid and deciduous; the young hypanthium is ridged, but not muricate as far as can be seen. The source of the specimens of this gathering are unknown, except that they probably also came from the upper Amazon; the label reads simply "ad ripam flum Amaz."

The epithet muricata, being the more descriptive as it pertains to the present species, is here taken up in preference to riparia, which was published for the same species at the same time. This action would seem to be permitted by the Code, even though in 1958, I took up the epithet riparia and suggested, with the appropriate indication of doubt, that muricata and riparia were perhaps conspecific. The Eugenia riparia of the Flora of Peru was a mixture, including some plants of the true muricata, and others for which the oldest available name is apparently E. patens Poir.

Distribution:Bolivia South America| Brazil South America| French Guiana South America|