Figs. 28-32, 61-65.
Bejletus hydnoides [Sw.. Nov. Gen. S]). Plant. Prodr. Descr. Veg. 149. 17881.
Polyporus hydnoides (Sw.) ex Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1: 362. 1821.
Trametes hydnoides (Sw. ex Fr.) Fr.. Epicr. Syst. Mycol. 490. 1838.
Polystictus hydnoides (Sw. ex Fr.) P. Henn.. Hedwigia 43: 178. 1904.
Pogonomyces hydnoides (Sw. ex Fr.) Murr.. Bull. Torrey Club 31(10): 609-610. 1904.
Boletus hydnatinus [Bose. Ges. Nat. Freunde Berlin Mag. 5: 84. 1811]. Type from South Carolina, U.S.A. (teste Fries, 1828: 107).
Polyporus hydnatinus (Bose) ex Fr.. Syst. Mycol. 1: 362. 1821.
Polyporus pellitus [G. Meyer. Fl. Esseq. 303. 1818]. Type from K. Esequibo River, British Guiana (teste Saccardo, 1888: 346).
Polyporus pellitus G. Meyer ex Fr.. Syst. Mycol. 1: 362. 1821.
Boletus crinitus [Spreng., K. Svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 1820: 51. 1820]. Type from Puerto Rico (teste Fries, 1828: 107).
Polyporus crinitus (Spreng.) ex Fr.. Syst. Mycol. 1: 362. 1821.
Boletus fibrosus Hook, in Kunth, Syn. Pl. 1: 10. 1822. Type from Andes, between Popayan and Almaguer, Colombia.
Trametes fibrosa (Hook, in Kunth) Fr., Epicr. Syst. Mycol. 490. 1838.
Trametes ocellata Berk. & Curt.. Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 10: 319. (1S6S) 1869. Type from Cuba (teste Murrill, 1908c: 84).
Polyporus jeathermanni Rav. in Cooke. Grevillea 6(40) : 130. 1878. Type from Gainesville, Florida. U.S.A.
Trametes jeathermanni (Rav. in Cooke) Cooke. Grevillea 14(74): 55. 1886.
Polyporus verrucoso-hirtus Speg., Anal. Soc Cit. Argent. 17: 46. 1884. Type from Guarapi, Paraguay (teste Bresadola, 1916: 228).
Type. Holotype collected by Swartz at herbarium Thunberg (UPS) sheet 27237, labelled as Boletus hydnoides Swartz.
Type Locality. Jamaica, West Indies.
Basionym. Polyporus hydnoides (Sw.) ex Fr., 1821.
Illustrations. Bose, Ges. Nat. Freunde Berlin Mag. 5: pl. 4, fig- 2, a-d. 1811 (as Boletus hydnatinus); Tavares, Bol. Seer. Ind. Com. Pernambuco 1939: figs. 47-48. 1939 (as T. fibrosa); Overholts, Univ. Alich. Stud., Sci. Ser. 19: pl. 48, figs. 288-289; pl. 130. 1953 (as P hydnoides); L o w y and Welden, Amer. Midi. Nat. 6 1 : fig. 6. 1959 (as P. hydnoides).
Discussion. After studying H. hydnoides. the type was located. I had accepted the name in the traditional sense of Polyporus hydnoides. as used by Overholts (1953: 397). This decision agreed with the type. I examined the holotype of Boletus fibrosus Hook, in Kunth (deposited at K) and found it conspecific with H. hydnoides, as was indicated earlier by Murrill (1908c: 84); the type of B. fibrosus is a small specimen, almost black, with the surface washed off, with few hairs, pore surface dark brown, with 3.5-4 (-51 pores per mm. The name T. fibrosa is applied in herbaria generally to specimens with dark brown hairs, nearly concolorous with the abhymenial surface, over which the hairs become more or less prostrate. The name P. hydnoides is generally applied to specimens with black and erect hairs, arranged in a more dense way. Casually the collections are quite uniform showing one or the other aspect; however I have seen specimens also with intermediate color and position of hairs as well as several collections where both aspects were clearly recognized. I think that they are just morphological forms of one species.
The inclusion of Hexagona hydnoides in Hexagona Fr. emend, proved to be
necessary since the detailed study of H. apiaria, H. hirta and H. pobeguini indicated
that they are undoubtly related to H. hydnoides. In the emendation of
genus Hexagona, Pogonomyces Murr. appears to be superfluous. The association of H. hydnoides with species of Hexagona was suggested earlier by several
authors: (1) Boletus fibrosus (one of the synonyms of H . hydnoides) was described
by Hooker (1822: 10) as similar to P. hydnoides and differing from H.
hirta by having smaller pores; (2) Saccardo (1888: 347) suggested that Trametes
hystrix (one of the synonyms of H. hirta) was closely related to P. hydnoides
and T. fibrosa; (3) Patouillard (1900: 92) indicated that Hexagona was closely
related to Trametes through the close relationship observed between sect. Setosus
of Hexagona (including H . hirta, H. apiaria, H. capillacea, etc.) and sect. Fibrosus
of Trametes (including T. hydnoides, T. aspera, T. fibrosa, etc.); (4) Lloyd
(1916b: 612) considered the existence of a line of continuous variation among
H. apiaria, H. hirta and T. hydnoides; (5) Donk (1933: 197) indicated Pogonomyces
and Hexagona as closely related genera; (6) Fidalgo and K. Fidalgo
(1962: 198-201) concluded that H. apiaria, H. hirta and P hydnoides were
closely related species, P. hydnoides, however, having a more complex structure
of the pilear surface. Recently Donk (1964: 281) included Pogonomyces in the
synonymy of Hexagojia Fr. [cited as Scenidium (Kl.) 0. Kuntze]. I have reached
the conclusion that Hexagona is the best place for P hydnoides after comparing
its structure with those of H. apiaria, H . hirta, H. aspera and especially with
that of the African fungus, H. pobeguini. I noticed that in the pilear surface
of H. pobeguini a plectenchymatic structure sometimes is present also which
resembles the formation that Fidalgo & K. Fidalgo (1962: 200) first noted in
H. hydnoides. At that time it was supposed not to be found in genus Hexagona
but only in Pogonomyces. In H. pobeguini this structure is not as conspicuous
as in H. hydnoides and is comparatively thinner, probably consisting of generative
hyphae. In addition to the latter observation, I believe that the hyphal system,
the way the hyphae are distributed in the context, the dark context, the fasciculated
trichoderm associated with a cutis, the occurrence of dark colored hyphal
pegs, the shape of basidiospores, the honeycombed basidia, and the way the
pileus is attached to the substrate are characteristics that indicate a strong relationship
of H. hydnoides with the typical species of Hexagona Fr. emend. Among
these species H. hydnoides appears as closely related to H. hirta f hystrix, a
form formerly considered an independent species. While H. hirta appears to be a
highly polymorphic species, H. hydnoides is comparatively much more stable.
In the size of pores, H . hirta presents a range of (3.5-) 4-15 (-23) pores per cm
while H. hydnoides shows less variation with a range of 3-4 (-5) pores per m m.
I suspect that some of the records of H. hydnoides from Africa were based upon
misdetermined specimens of H. hirta f hystrix. H. hydnoides can be separated
from H. hirta i hystrix by the following characteristics: (1) Skeletal hyphae of
the upper layer of the context are slightly thinner than those found in H. hirta.
(2) Hyphal pegs are smaller than those found in H. hirta. (3) Dissepiments are
thinner. (4) Pores are smaller. (5) A dimitic, plectenchymatic, hyphal structure
may be found around the insertion of the hairs of the pilear surface of H.
hydnoides but is not found in H. hirta.
H. aspera is another species that has small pores and tubes sometimes disposed
in more than one layer. It is easily distinguished from H. hydnoides because it
loses the hairs of the pilear surface very early becoming glabrescent and has
skeletal hyphae of a larger diameter.
Boletus ursinus [Link, 1809: 38-39] described from Brazil was indicated bv
Fries (1838: 490) as closely related to P hydnoides and considered by Bresadola
(1916: 229) as a mere synonym of it. Fidalgo & K. Fidalgo (1967: 881) have
indicated this name as "nomen dubium" until a type can be found. The collection that Fries (1848) listed from Natal, South Africa, is not H. hydnoides; there is
a fragment of it at BPI (Lloyd 53400) which seems to be a specimen of Funalia sp.
Boletus vulpinus [Link, 1809: 39] was described from Brazil as a possible
young stage of Boletus ursinus and indicated by Fries (1838: 490) as closely
related to P. hydnoides. Later on, the name P. vulpinus was used by Fries (1874:
565) to describe a new species. Fidalgo & K. Fidalgo (1967) have recommended
that B. vulpinus [Link] be considered also as "nomen dubium" until a type is
In herbaria I found two unrelated species that are sometimes misdetermined
as H. hydnoides: Polyporus trichomallus Berk. & Mont, and Polyporus cirrhiferus
Berk. & Curt. Both occur in tropical areas and have a conspicuous, strigose pilear
surface. P trichomallus has black, branched hairs, disposed in a compact way
and with almost no context; the pileus is broadly attached to the substrate;
capitate cystidia are found in the hymenium and the basidiospores are oblongcylindric
to shortly cylindric, much smaller than those found in H. hydnoides.
P. cirrhiferus has reddish-brown, prostrate hairs, also disposed in a compact way
but the context is thicker and separated from the trichoderm by a thin, black
line; the context is not brown but cream to beige; skeletal hyphae are hyaline to
yellowish; the hymenium is interrupted by frequent hyphal pegs, which are
hyaline and very slender, made up only by generative hyphae; basidiospores are
cylindric but smaller than those of H. hydnoides.
Habitat, Hosts and Economic Importance. Hexagona hydnoides is usually
found on dead wood such as dead branches of living trees, old stumps, railway
ties, poles, fence posts, etc. And apparently this fungus can become a parasite.
I collected it once in Guanabara State, Brazil, growing abundantly on trunks of
living trees of Ficus retusa L. and I found collections in BPI and FH labelled as
found on living oak, Quercus sp., in Florida; also in BPI there is a collection
from Tortola, Virgin Is., which was labelled as being found on a growing tree of
Tamarindus indica L.
Hexagona hydnoides seems to occur in altitudes up to 2000 m and also at
sea level, north and south of the Equator. Some of the collections that I have
seen were labelled as having been found in dense and humid forests of Brazil,
Peru and Venezuela; however, most of the collections appear to be from dry
areas. In Brazil I found it very common in the dry savanna ("cerrados"), either
of the open or close types ("cerradoes''). Wolf (1949: 215) reported it from
Venezuela as "manifestly xerophytic" and Guzman (1963b: 51) reported it
from the arid zone of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
H. hydnoides has been listed in literature as growing on dead wood of Acacia
sp. in Venezuela (Patouillard & Heim, 1928: 269), Anacardium occidentale L.
in Dominican Rep. (Ciferri, 1961: 102), Byrso7iima sp. in Sao Paulo, Brazil
(Fidalgo, K. Fidalgo & Furtado, 1965: 60), Carya sp. in Florida (Overholts,
1953: 398), Casuarina equisetifoUa L. in Florida (Hedgcock, 1940: 325; Overholts,
1953: 398), Citrus sp. in California [?] (Weiss, 1941: 40), Gleditsia sp.,
Juglans sp. and Liquidambar sp. in Florida (Overholts, 1953: 398), Malpighia
urens L. and Mimusops balata Craig ex Griseb. in ^Martinique (Patouillard in
Duss, 1903: 29), Pithecolobium saman (Willd.) Benth. in British Guiana (Wakefield,
1934: 250), Platanus sp., Prosopis sp. and Quercus sp. in Florida (Overholts.
1953: 398), Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill in Trinidad (Rayner, 1941:
6; Baker and Dale, 1951: 82), Sloanea surinameiisis in IMartinique (Patouillard
ill Duss, 1903: 29) and on Ulmus sp. in Florida (Overhohs, 1953: 398).
Some of the collections that I studied were labelled as found on dead wood Acer floridanum Pax. in Texas (BPI), Albizzia lebbek Benth. in Florida (FH),
Anacardium occidentale L. in Dominican Republic (BPI), Astronium balansae
Engl, in Argentina (BPI), Carya ilUnoensis C. Koch in Florida (BPI), Carya
olivaeformis Nutt. in Texas (BPI), Casuarina sp., in Bahamas (NY), C. equisetifoUa
L. in Florida (BPI), Cecropia sp. in Amazonas, Brazil (BPI), Celtis sp. in
Texas (BPI), Citrus sp. in Florida (BPI, FH), C. aurantifolia Swingle in Florida
(BPI), C. medica L. in Florida (BPI), Comocladia dentata Jacq. in Cuba (BPI,
FH), Cupressus sp. in Florida (BPI, NY) and in Kansas (BPI), Dichrostachys
nutans Benth. in Cuba (BPI), Ficus sp. in Honduras (BPI), F. retusa L. in
Guanabara, Brazil (RBM, SP), Flacourtia ramontchii L'Her. in Guadeloupe (FH,
NY), Fraxinus berlandiera DC. in Texas (BPI), Gleditsia sp. in Louisiana (BPI,
NY), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. in Cuba (FH), Hevea sp., in Para, Brazil (BPI),
H. brasiliensis Mueh. in Amazonas, and Para, Brazil (BPI) and in Vera Cruz,
Mexico (BPI), Inga sp. in Costa Rica and Honduras (BPI, FH), Inga vera
Willd. in Puerto Rico (BPI), Jacaranda mimosaefolia G. Don in Colombia (BPI),
Juglans nigra L. in Texas (BPI), J. rupestris Englem. in Texas (BPI), Leucaena
glauca Benth. in Florida (BPI), Magnolia sp. in Martinique (BPI), Malpighia
urens L. in Guadeloupe (FH, NY), Mangifera indica L. in Florida (BPI), Mimusops
balata Craig ex Griseb. in Martinique (FH), Myristica surinamensis Rol. in
Trinidad (NY), Ocotea catesbyana (Michx.) Sarg. in Florida (BPI), Persea
gratissima Gaertn. (as P. americana Mill.) in Florida (FH), P. palustris (Raf.)
Sarg. in Florida (BPI), Firms caribaea Morel, in Florida (FH), Pithecolobium
saman (Willd.) Benth. in Cuba (FH), Platanus sp. in Texas (BPI), Poinciana sp.
in Florida (BPI), Prosopis sp. in Texas and Argentina (BPI), P. juliflora DC.
Willd. in Puerto Rico (BPI), Jacaranda mimosaefolia D. Don in Colombia (BPI),
Prunus persica Stokes in Texas (BPI), Quercus sp. in Florida (BPI, FH), Q. alba
L. in Texas (BPI), Q. myrtifolia Willd. in Florida (NY), Q. phellos L. in Texas
(BPI), Q. texana Buckl. in Texas (BPI), Q. virginiana Mill, in Florida (BPI),
Sambucus sp. in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (BPI), Sideroxylon mastichodendron
Jacq. in Florida (BPI), Theobroma cacao L. in Trinidad (NY) and Amazonas
and Para, Brazil (BPI), and Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. in Texas (BPI). In addition,
one collection had been collected on an old stump in a coffee plantation in Trinidad
(NY), several were found on dead coconut trunks in El Salvador (FH) and
in Trinidad (NY) and, one collection (G. Eiten & L. T. Eiten 4823) was found
on dead wood of a "cagaita" tree in Maranhao, Brazil (SP), which according to
the collectors is a member of the Myrtaceae and probably Stenocalyx dysentericus
North America Hexagona hydnoides is found in a few states of United States and in several parts of Mexico. It is known and abundantly collected in Florida, Texas and Louisiana. It is reported here for the first time, apparently, from Kansas, growing on Cupressus sp. There is also a report from California by Weiss (1941: 40) of it growing on Citrus sp. and the record of Bose (1911) of Boletus hydnatinus from South Carolina, but these records are still not confirmed. In Florida the species is usually found in a kind of vegetation called hammocks, where there is a predominance of hardwood trees and the soil has a greater depth than observed in areas covered by softwood trees. From Mexico I have seen collections from states of Colima, Oaxaca, Nuevo Leon, San Luis de Potosi, Quintena Roo, Vera Cruz and Yucatan; Guzman (1963a: 32; 1963b: 51) reported it also from states of Guerrero, Jalisco, Puebla and Tabasco.
H. hydnoides is extremely common in the AVest Indies Avhere it has been found in the Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Leeward Is. (Guadeloupe, St. Kitts, IMontserrat), Virgin Is. (St. Croix, St. Thomas. Tortola), Windward Is. (Dominica, ^Martinique, St. Vincent) and Trinidad. From Central America I have seen collections from British Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. H. hydnoides is also very common in South America where it occurs in Argentina (northern part of Chaco, Corrientes, Salta and Tucuman), Bolivia (Beni and Pando), Brazil (where it is one of the commonest species, known to occur in the states of Amazonas, Bahia, Goias, Guanabara, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, ]Minas Gerais, Para, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo), Guianas (British, Dutch and French), Colombia (Bolivar, Caqueta, Cauca, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, JMagdalena, ]Meta and Del Valle), Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru (Cuzco, Huanuco, Loreto, and Parco), and Venezuela (Amazonas, Apure, Aragua, Anzoategui, Bolivar, Guarico, Aliranda, Monagas and Sucre).
Some references in the literature record H. hydnoides also from Asia and
Africa. Leveille (1844: 195) hsted it from Java and Sumatra and later Hennings
(1893b: 221; 1894: 31; 1895: 58) from Celebes Is. and N e w Guinea. I have
not examined any collection from Asia; it is unlikely that H. hydnoides occurs in
From Africa H. hydnoides was recorded by Hennings (1893a: 29; 1893c: 105; 1895: 58; 1900b: 322 I from different localities: Abyssinia (Gebel Gedem) on trunk of Acacia sp., Togo (Bismarkburg Station), Mauritius Is., Madagascar and Tanganyika (Usambara). From Natal, Union of South Africa, Trametes hydnoides was hsted by Fries (1848: 9) and Cheesman (1909: 410) reported also T hydnoides "thickly imbricate on fallen log of Ficus sp." from Victoria Falls. Patouillard (1928b: 16) recorded it from Madagascar and Castellani and Ciferri (1950: 29) recorded it from Eritrea. I have not examined any of the collections upon which these records were based but a few collections that I found in herbaria from Africa labelled a T. hydnoides are in m y opinion H. hirta f hystrix.