Monographs Details: Hexagona hirta f. hystrix (P.Beauv. ex Fr. & Cooke) Fr. &
Authority: Fidalgo, Oswaldo & Fidalgo, Maria E. 1968. Polyporaceae from Venezuela. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17 (2): 1--34.
Description:Species Description - Fruiting body sessile, dimidiate, applanate, covered with dense, erect, branched hairs, up to 7 mm long; pores (11-) 12-15(-23) per cm, almost isodiametric, context 0.5-3 mm thick, tubes very shallow, 0.5-2 (-3) mm long.
Distribution and Ecology - Distribution. Mauritius I., Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Tanganyika, Sudan, Rhodesia, South Africa, Nigeria and others. Specimens examined. Africa. Locality not indicated, Gossweiler, 1921 (FH, as H. hystrix). ANGOLA. Locality not indicated, Gossweiler (Lloyd 18622, 55762, 53543 at BPI, as H. crinigera and T. hystrix). CAMEROUN. Ekundu, Diiscn (BPI) CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC. Fort Crampel, Baudon 2060, 2124, 1913 (herb. Patouillard at F H 2698, as H. hystrix) ; locality not indicated, Schircinfurth (herb. Bresadola at BPI). CONGO. Banningui River, Baudon 1995 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2698, as H. hystrix) ; Eala, collector unknown (herb. Bresadola at URM 8575) ; "Belgian Congo," Ipamu, Vandcryst 12016, Sep 1922 (Lloyd 19589 at BPI, holotype of H. pectinata), Vandcryst, Oct 10, 1021 (Lloyd 53540 at BPI, as T. hystri.r). Locality not indicated, Dybowski, Nov 1893-1894 (herb. Patouillard at K H 2696), Pinaert (herb. Bresadola at BPI). ETHIOPIA. Eritiea, Assaorta, Mt. Dijot, Pappi, Mar 3, 1903 (herb. Saccardo at PAD holotype of H. assaortina); "Ethiopia australis," Neger, 1907 (BPI). GABON. Bas Ogoue, Chevalier, 1921 (PC). Locality not indicated, Leroy, 1896 (herb. Patouillard at F H 2696). GHIAN A (GOLD COAST). Ashanti, Hunter (Lloyd 19604, 53536 at BPI). Aburi, Johnson 100, Apr 1900 (K, as H. wightii). Locality not indicated. Hunter (Lloyd 19599 at BPI). GUINEA (FRENCH GUINEA). Locality not indicated, Boue 1901 (herb. Patouillard at F H 2698, as H. hystrix), Boue, 1905-1906 (herb. Patouillard at F H 2696). KENYA. Mombasa, Maitland, 1920 (Lloyd 54550 at BPI, as T. hystrix). MADAGASCAR. Locality not indicated, Perville 77 [herb. Cooke at K, as H. strigosa (misnamed), holotype of Trametes adelphica; isotype, herb. Bresadola at BPI], de la Bathie (Lloyd 53532 at BPI, as T. hystrix). AIALI. Sareya, Haut Niger, Chevalier (herb. Patouillard at FH 2698, as H. hystrix). MAURITIUS I. Locality not indicated, Telfair (herb. Berkeley at K, as P. sinensis, holotype of P. klotzschii; isotype, herb. Fries at UPS) ; locality and collector not indicated (Lloyd 19603 at BPI); locality and collector not indicated (herb. Cooke, "Mauritius N? 1" at K, holotype of Trametes hystrix). MOZAMBIQUE. Tete: Zumbo, Cruz (herb. Torrend at URM 6617, as H. klotzschii). NIGERIA. Oware (Owerri), Palisot de Beauvois (herb. Delessert, herb. A. De Candolle at G, holotype of Favolus hirtus); Meko, Farquharson, 1910 (BPI). PORTUGUESE GUINEA. Geba, Newton, 1901 (PAD). REUNIONI. Collector unknown (herb. Cooke 12 at K, as H. strigosa) ; collector unknown (herb. Patouillard at FH 2697, as H. hystrix). Locality not indicated, collector unknown (herb. Bresadola at BPI, as T. adelphica). SENEGAL. Locality and collector not indicated (herb. Patouihard at FH 2697, as H. hystri.r.). SIERRA LEONE. Locality not indicated. Cole, 1889 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2696; herb. Burt at FH; herb. Elhs at FH ; NY). SOUTHERN RHODESIA. Victoria Falls, Bottomley, 1920 (BPI). TANGANYIKA. Post Mwanza, Hammerstein (Lloyd 19598 at BPI). Kilimandjaro, Ludw., 1888 (herb, von Hoehnel at F H 2297). Locality not indicated, Hammerstein (Lloyd 53535 at BPI). UNION OF SOUTH" AFRICA. Natal: Wahlberg (herb. Fries at UPS, as H. crinigera). Locality not indicated, van der Bijl (Lloyd 53541, 53542 at BPI, as T. hystrix). ZANZIBAR. Locality not indicated, O'Connor (Lloyd 53534 at BPI, as T. hystrix). Geographical Distribution. Hexagona hirta seems to be restricted to Africa and allied islands. Under its extensive synonyms this species has been indicated as occurring in the following countries: Angola, Lake Ivantala region by Doidge (1950: 519) as H. thollonis; Cameroun, Ekundu N'dene by Hennings (1897: 93) and Bresadola (1914: 542); Chad, Chari-Tchad region by Patouillard and Hariot (1909: 90) as H. hystrix and H. hirta; Congo, from Eala by Bresadola (1911: 269), AVildeman (1914: 23) and Hendrickx (1948: 101), from Brazzaville by Patouillard and Hariot (1893: 208) as H. thollonis, from Bambata region by Wildeman (1914: 23), from lower and middle Congo by Beeli (1922: 91; 1930: 249), from Lukuga valley by Wakefield (1936: 51) as H. hystrix; Ethiopia, from Eritrea, Mont. Gedem by Bresadola (1894: 177) as H. crinigera, from Eritrea, Assaorta by Saccardo and Baccarini in Baccarini (1917: 121) as H. assaortina, from Eritrea, El Ara by Trotter (1925: 444) as H. klotzschii; Ghana (Gold Coast), Ashanti by Dade (1940: 223) as H. hirta and H. hystrix and, also by Piening (1962: 39); Guinea by Fries (1838: 496; 1851: 100; 1860: tab. 4, fig. 10) as H. crinigera, from French Guinea by Patouillard (1907: 80) as H. crinigera and H. klotzschii; Madagascar by Cooke (1891: 103) as T. adelphica and by Patouillard (1928b: 16) as T. hystrix; Mali, Oulade
Distribution and Ecology - Prov., Sareya by Patouillard and Hariot (1900: 239) as T. hystrix, from Soudan region by Patouillard (1907: 82) as H. klotzschii, from margin of Niger River, region of Diafarabe by Heim (1932: 917) as H. hystrix; Mauritania by Heim (1932: 917; 1933: 144); Mauritius I. by Klotzsch (1833: 482) as P. sinensis, by Berkeley (1839: 383) as P. klotzschii and by Cooke (1880: 98) as T. hystrix; Mozambique by Torrend (1905: 219) as H. crinigera; Nigeria, from Oware by Palisot de Beauvois (1805: 1) as F. hirtus, from Gurara region, Zungeru, Meko and Bonny by Wakefield (1912: 143; 1914: 259; 1917: 107) as H. hirta, H. klotzschii and T. hystrix; Reunion I., Sainte-Suzanne by Montague (1846: 146) as P. hirtus and by Heim (1932: 917; 1933: 144) as H. hystrix; Senegambia by Heim (1932: 917, 1933: 144) as H. hystrix; Seychelles Is. by Leveille (1846a: 144) and, by Dupont (1926: 5); Sierra Leone by Deighton (1936: 429); Somaha from Bardera region by Baccarini (1916: 193), by Trotter (1925: 444) and, by Castellani and Ciferri (1950: 29) as H. klotzschii; Southern Rhodesia by Hopkins (1938: 112; 1950: 92) and by Doidge (1950: 517) as H. klotzschii; Spanish Guinea, Rio Muni by Guinea (1931: 277); Togo, from Bismarksburg Station by Hennings (1893a: 29); Union of South Africa, from Cape of Good Hope Prov., Knysma by Doidge (1950: 517) as H. hystrix, from Natal Prov. by Fries (1848: 16; 1851: 100) as H. crinigera, from Nongowa district by Wakefield (1936: 51) as H. hystrix, from Eschowe and Umzindeni, north of Hluhuwe by Doidge (1950: 517) as H. hystrix, from Transvaal, Komatipoort by Doidge (1950: 516) as H. crinigera. From specimens in herbaria I have found evidence of occurrences of H. hirta also in Central African Republic, Gabon, Kenya, Tanganyika and Zanziibar.
Trametes hystrix Cooke, Grevillea 9: 98. 1880.
Hexagona hystrix (Cooke) Pat. & Har., Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 15: 90. 1909.
Type. Holotype in M. C. Cooke herbarium at K, designated as "Mauritius N.º1."
Type Locality. Mauritius I.
Discussion. Hexagona hirta is a very polymorphic species and its extensive synonymy is due to the tremendous variability presented by the specimens. The variation based on some macroscopical characteristics of the type specimens of H. hirta and its synonyms is illustrated in Table II. The types of H. hirta and H. crinigera appear to be se])arated from the others by a gap in pore size. Actually this lacuna does not exist since many recent collections found in herbaria fill this hypothetic space. Specimens examined from Sierra Leone, Ghana and the Congo have 5-8(-10) pores per cm. The limits between the types of H. assaortina P klotzschii, T. adelphica and T. hystrix are not so ilistinct. I have used the configuration of pores and the long pilear hairs to separate f hystrix from f klotzschii, but perhaps examination of a larger number of specimens will prove that these variations are not constant enough to deserve even the status of a form.
The extreme variability of H. hirta had been noticed already by Lloyd (1910a: 7) and Wakefield (1914: 259). While examining the types of the synonyms, I noted a sequence of continuous variation from large pores to small pores, from the type of Favolus hirtus [P. Beauv.] with (3.5-)4-5(-6) pores per cm to the type of Trametes hystrix Cooke, with (11-) 12-15(-16) pores per cm. I observed that the most abundant form appears to be the one with 8-13 pores per cm, which I have called f. klotzschii. Among the numbers of examined exsiccatae no geographical limits for the forms could be recognized, since large and small pored specimens were studied from the same geographical areas.
Specimens of H. hirta with a fertile hymenium are rather rare. Three fertile collections were seen, one from the Congo, Eala (URM 8575), with basidiospores 11.5-15(-16.5) X4.2-5.5 µ; a second from Ghana, locality unkown (Lloyd 19599 at BPI), with basidiospores (9-)10-12 x 4-5.5 µ; a third from Ghana, Aburi (Johnson 100 at K) with basidiospores 10.5-13.5x4-5 (-6) µ. In many other collections including the holotype of H. hirta (deposited at G) I frequently found spores attached to the hairs of the pilear surface which showed the same dimensions and shape of the basidiospores noted above.
Hexagona hirta appears to be closely related with H. apiaria through f hirta and to be also related with H. hydnoides through f hystrix. H. hirta is here separated from H. apiaria on the basis of a larger number of pores per centimeter, absence of cystidioid hyphae in the hymenium, hyphal pegs less abundant, and a different geographical distribution. H. hirta differs from H. hydnoides by having larger pores, skeletal hyphae of larger diameter, hyphal pegs slightly larger, and a pilear surface without a dimitic structure around the insertion of the hairs. The South American species, H. capillacea, shows the same general habit of H. hirta differing, however, in having smaller basidia and by the presence of seta-like bodies in the hymenium.
Hexagona elegans, a species described by Hariot (1891: 207) as belonging to the group "H. hirtae" of Fries (1851), m a y possibly be a related species to H. hirta but I have not seen the type. Hariot (1891) indicated that the real affinities of H. elegans are with H. aculeata (Mont.) Lev. while Lloyd (1910a: 9) indicated "it is not so close to H. aculeata as might appear from the photograph." So far H. elegans is apparently known only from the type collection. Habitat, Hosts and Economic Importance. Hexagona hirta has been reported on dead wood and dead trunks. Frequently it has been reported associated with wood of angiosperms: Acacia karroo Hayne in the Transvall by Doidge (1950: 516); Albizzia sp. in the Congo by Hendrickx (1948: 101); Casuarina sp. in Seychelles Is. by Dupont (1926: 5); Grewia villosa Willd. in Ethiopia by Bresadola (1894: 177) and TerminaUa sp. in Ethiopia by Trotter (1925: 444). A collection at FH, collected by J. N. Gossweiler, is quoted as being found on wood of Acacia sp.
The rot produced is apparently unknown.
Hexagona hirta has been recorded in the literature as occurring also outside of Africa but I cannot confirm this distribution. H. crinigera was listed by Berkeley and Broome (1875: 56) from Ceylon, Damboul, by Berkeley (1878: 47) from Philippines, Malamoni, Malanipa and by Cooke (1882: 133; 1892: 164) from Australia, Queensland. Lloyd (1923: 1216) also listed a collection of H. hirta from Austraha, based on a specimen from the Saccardo herbarium. I was unable to examine the collections used as the basis for the first three records; however the records of Berkeley (1875; 1878) apply to a large-pored fungi and seem to be based upon specimens of LI. apiaria; the specimen recorded by Berkeley and Broome (1875) from Ceylon, according to Fetch (1916: 26) is H. apiaria. The Australian collection referred by Lloyd (1923) to H. hirta was found at BPI (Lloyd 21560); this is, probably, a portion of a collection of P. A. Saccardo's herbarium at PAD, collected at Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, by Hartmann, 1884. I have examined both. They have a large-pored surface! 2-3 pores per cm, and a hymenium lined by basidia and cystidioid hyphae, with many projected hyphal pegs. I consider the specimens to be H. apiaria.
I found at NY two exsiccatae from G. Massee's collection, labelled as H. crinigera. Both are non-African specimens; one is labelled as' from "Ceylon" and the other from "Brazil"; no other data are furnished. In m y opinion they do not belong to the H. hirta complex. The specimen from Ceylon agrees exactly with the collection illustrated by Lloyd (1910a: fig. 282) as H. deschampsii, having large and shallow pores, (1.5-)2-3(-4) pores per cm and dark reddishbrown color. The collection from Brazil is a typical specimen of H. apiaria; I doubt that it was collected in this country; rather I believe that a wrong label was added to the collection.