Monographs Details: Hexagona aspera (Jungh.) Imazeki
Authority: Fidalgo, Oswaldo & Fidalgo, Maria E. 1968. Polyporaceae from Venezuela. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17 (2): 1--34.
Family:Polyporaceae
Description:Species Description - MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS. Fruiting body annual to rarely biennial, usually imbricate, sometimes solitary, always sessile, attached to the substrate by a small pilear portion, rarely by a broad portion; pileus flabelliform, spathulate to dimidiate, applanate to convex, sometimes also concave, (2-)4-8(-10.5) X (1.5-)3-6(-S.5) X (0.1-)0.2-0.7(-1) cm; coriaceous to corkycoriaceous; pilear surface with much variation in color, usually dull cinnamon brown, MP-15A8 (Winter Leaf), MP-15C9, MP-15E9, MP-7C11 (Auburn), frequently with a darker shade near the insertion portion being dark reddish-brown to almost black, MP-8H9 (Rembrandt) to MP-SLS (Brazil Brown), in some specimens the darker shade covering almost the whole surface with exception of the narrow, cinnamon-brown margin, surface zonate or not, strigose to rough, with prostrate, short hairs, with age becoming glabrescent, fibrillose; margin thin, rarely thick, entire to lobate, straight to curved upwards or downwards, usually cinnamon-brown, ]MP-15AS (Winter Leaf). Context coriaceous-fibrose. permanently darkening by the KOH solution, subhomogeneous, ferrugineous-brown to pale brown, MP-15A11 (Coffee), MP-15C11 (Cocoa Brown), MP-15E11 (New Bronze) to MP-14K9 (Bunny), (0.5-) 1-3(-5) mm thick. Hymenial surface pale brown, olive-brown to grayish-brown, MP-15H9, MP-15J10, M P-15E10 (Olive Brown) to MP-15E8 (Sphinx), always poroid, with angular, elongated pores, 1-3(-4) pores per mm; tubes beige to pale brown, AIP-15C8 (Chukker Brown), usually unistratified, rarely in two indistinct layers, (0.1-)0.15-0.3(-0.5) cm long; dissepiments (60-)70-180(-320) p thick. MICROSCOPIC characters. Pilear surface with a fasciculated trichoderm, formed by short, dark, branched hairs, usually prostrate, up to 2000 p long, 90-300 p diam, falling off very early; an indistinct to distinct cutis usually present, up to 25 µ thick, formed by the outer hyphae of the context that become agglutinated and show periclinal orientation; in some collections an atypical paraderm also present, 30-50 µ thick, formed by a pluristratified layer of very much modified generative hyphae, some elongated, some isodiametric, much thickened and with dark brown walls; this paraderm responsible for the dark reddish-brown spot on the pilear surface. Context trimitic. Generative hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, septate, with clamps, branched, nonamyloid, inconspicuous throughout the fruiting body, 1.5-3 p diam; skeletal hyphae yellow to yellowish-brown, thickened, usually with a broad lumen, sometimes subsolid or solid, not septate but sometimes with frequent, delicate, simple septa (found specially in the hyphae with large lumen), unbranched, (4-)5-7(-9) µ diam in he context, with smaller diam, 3-5 (-6) µ and more thickened at the dissepiments; binding hyphae hyaline to yellowish-brown, thickened to solid, much branched to coralloid, not septate, 1-3 µ diam, mostly present at the lower part of the context and at the dissepiments. Context in section a loose, fibrose, upper layer (with hyphae mostly arranged in periclinal orientation) and a thin, compact, lower layer (with hyphae showing indefinite orientation). Dissepiments trimitic formed by densely interwoven hyphae, not showing a definite orientation. Hymenium; setae, cystidia, cystidioid hyphae or cystidioles not found; hyphal pegs present but scarce, conic, brownish, 25-50 X 15-28(-35) µ,; basidia clavate, hyaline, 25-28 x (6.5-) 7-8 µ, apparently collapsing very early; basidiospores hyaline, smooth, cylindrical, nonamyloid, (8-) 9-11 (-12) x 3-4(-4.5) µ.

Distribution and Ecology - Habitat, Hosts and Economic Importance. Hexagona aspera appears to grow usually on dead trunks, dead branches and decayed logs; it has been found with some frequency on railway ties in the Philippines. Apparently it is not recorded as a parasite but at FHI found a collection which was quoted as growing on living tree of Saraca declinata ]Miq. in Singapore. Africa. GALEGA ISLAND. Lcduc (herb. Bresadola at BPI, merotype of Polyporus heteroporus). Asia. BORNEO. British North Borneo, Elphinstone Prov., Tawau, Elmer 20581, 2173S. 1923 (BP). CAMBODIA. "Reserve Forestiere de Kompong Chhnang," Petelot 302, Jul 1921 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2759). CEYLON. Peradenyia, Fetch (Lloyd 48653 at BPI). CHINA. Lingnam, Lau Slum Yan (Crypt. Exs. ed. IMus. Hist. Nat. Vindobonensi 3256 at NY, as T. badia). INDIA. Calcutta, Bose 40 (BPI). Khulna Dept., Bose, Aug. 24, 1919 (Lloyd 54489 at BPI). INDONESIA. Java I., "in sylvis Javae inferioribus," Junghuhn (Lloyd 17839 at BPI, merotype of Polyporus asper) ; locality not indicated, Zollinger 6581 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2754); Sewarang, van Leeuwen (Lloyd 54412 at BPI): Buitenzorg, van Leeuwen (Lloyd 17S3S, 48562 at BPI); Salak, Nyman. Feb 1898 (UPS). Flores I., Bari, Zollinger 3288 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2796. isotype of Polyporus fuscellus). Krakatau I., Boedjin 2139. Nov 1932 (BO 13718 at FH). MALAYA. Pahang. Tembeling, Corner 2S297, Nov IS, 1936 (K; FH) NORTH VIETNAIM. Tonkin, Bon 3661 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2759). Nam Dinh, Bcmtan 44, 1904 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2753). Hanoi, Duport 673, May 1911 (herb. Patouihard at FH 2754) PHILIPPINES. Locality not indicated, Cuming 1995 (K, holotype of T. badia; NY, merotype). Basilan I. Reyes, Jun 1921 (B.S. 40016, Lloyd 53647 at BPI, as T. amplopora). Batan I. Basco, Reynolds, Jun 1965 (SP). Culion I. MerriU 3526, Dec 1902 (NY). Lapac I. Reyes, Jun 1921 (B.S. 39952 at BPI). Luzon I. Bataan Prov.: Lamao River, alt 500 ft, Williams, Jan 1904 (NY), alt 400 ft, Williams, Feb 1904 (NY), alt 350 ft, Williams 102, Feb 1904 (NY), alt 200 ft, Williams 101, Dec 1903 (NY); Mt. Mariveles, Copeland 158, Jan. 30, 1904 (NY; Lloyd 17829 at BPI), Graff, Apr 1912 (B.S. 16771 at NY); Laguna Prov.: Mt. Maquiling, College, Reynolds 2433, Mar 1965 (SP); College, Lopez, Mar 1959 (SP); College, Eusebio, Jan 8, 1963 (SP); Mt. Maquiling Forest, Arenas 2912, May 1964 (SP), Collado 1383, 1917 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2754), Reyes, Mar 1920 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2755), Baker 2914, Mar 1, 1914 (herb. Patouillard at FH 2796), Mangonon 5239, Jul 30, 1919 (Lloyd 48632 at BPI); Maquiling Nat. Park, Bermillo 130, Jan 29, 1946 (BPI), Los Baiios, Reinking 3290, Jan 1919 (Lloyd 48633 at BPI), Reinking, Apr 6, 1921 (Lloyd 53393 at BPI, as T. amplopora), Reinking 11226, 11246, Apr 2, 1921 (Lloyd 4864I, 48643 at BPI), Reinking 11242 (Lloyd 48639 at BPI), Reinking 11327 (Lloyd 48638 at BPI), Reinking 11273 (Lloyd 48642 at BPI), Reinking 11233 (Lloyd 48640 at BPI), Reinking 11257 (Lloyd 48637 at BPI), College Campus, N. Reyes, Feb 5,1919 (Lloyd 48612 at BPI), Reyes 9182, (Lloyd 48626 at BPI); Santa Maria Mavitac, Curran, Feb. 1908 (F.B. 8930 at NY; Lloyd 2033 at BPI); Manila City: Magna, Dec 18, 1909 (Sydow, Fungi Exot. Exs. 307 at NY; Lloyd 2022 at BPI; FH), Merrill, Sep 1912 (Sydow, Fungi Exot. Exs. 306 at NY); near Manila, Graff, Jan 1913 (B.S. 20939 at NY; Lloyd 2023 at BPI); Pampanga Prov.: Mt. Arayat, MerriU 5031, Feb 1906 (NY; Lloyd 2425 at BPI); Rizal Prov.: Antipole, Reyes, Mar 1923 (B.S. 42116, Lloyd 13246 at BPI, as T. amplopora); Union Prov.: Bauang, Elmer 5710, Feb 1906 (NY; Lloyd 2025 at BPI). Mindanao I. Davao Prov.: IMamay, Ademesa, Jun 8, 1919 (Lloyd 55394 at BPI); Gulf of Davao, Santa Cruz, collector unknown. May 1905 (NY); Todaya, Mt. Apo, Elmer, Jul 1909 (Sydow, Fungi Exot. Exs. 975 at NY, isotype of Trametes badia f macropora Bres.); Lanao Prov.: Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Clemens, Sep 1907 (Lloyd 38553 at BPI, as T. amplopora; at NY as T. badia), Clemens, 1907 (Lloyd 2186 at BPI); Zamboanga Dist., Yates, Nov 1919 (B.S. 36126, Lloyd 21562 at BPI). Mindoro I. San Jose, Graff, Jan 1912 (Lloyd 2442 at BPI). Palawan I. Taytay, Merrill 8846, 1913 (Lloyd 54559 at BPI, holotype of Trametes amplopora; isotype at NY as T. strigata). Panay I. Antique, McGregor, May-Aug 1919 (B.S. 32662, Lloyd 48645 at BPI). Polillo I. Robimon 9280, Aug 19, 1909 (Lloyd 2182 at BPI). SAKHALIN I. Karafuto, Nakahara 53, 1906 (NY). SINGAPORE. Botanic Gardens, Baker 4987, 1917(herb. Patouillard at FH 2758). FORMOSA (Taiwan). Yasuda 389, Jul 15, 1916 (Lloyd 21566 at BPI).

Distribution and Ecology - Oceania. NEW CALEDONIA. Locality not indicated, Hcckel (herb. Patouillard at FH 2754; NY). SAMOA. Locality not indicated, Lloyd, 1920 (Lloyd 53546 at BPI). SOLOMON IS. Russell I., Froggatt 30 (Lloyd 54151 at BPI). Geographical Distribution: Hexagona aspera is known from some parts of Asia, Oceania and from Galega I., Eastern Africa. It has been reported from southeastern Asiatic islands: Java by Junghuhn (1839: 60); Krakatau and Verlaten Is. by Boedjin (1940: 393) as T. aspera and T. badia; Borneo by Bresadola (1912a: 317) as P. asper; Dutch New Guinea by Imazeki (1952: 112); Phillippine Is. (Luzon, Culion, Mindanao, Basilan, Batan, Palawan, etc.) by Berkeley (1842: 151) as T. badia, Ricker (1906: 285), Murrill (1907: 466; 1908b: 392), Bresadola (1912a: 317; 1912b: 69) as T. badia and T. aspera, Sydow and Sydow (1914: 158) as T. badia, Patouillard (1914: 2247) as T. aspera, Reinking (1919: 482; 1920a: 174; 1920b: 532) as T. aspera and T. badia, Lloyd (1921b: 1085; 1922: 1148) as T. badia, T. aspera and T. amplopora, Graff (1922: 223) as T. aspera, Teodoro (1937: 360) as T. aspera and T. badia, and Mendoza (1938: 95) as T. aspera. From continental Asia it has been reported from some southern countries: North Vietnam, Hanoi and Thanh Hoa by Patouillard (1891: 312) as T. badia; Assam, Lokra Hills by Bose (1937: 134); India, Calcutta by Lloyd (1921a: 1038) as T. badia; Malaya, Singapore by Lloyd (1921a: 1038) as P. badius var. microporus; China, Lingnam by Petrak (1941: 353); Pakistan by Ahmed (1951: 52) and Khan (1952: 75). Two collections at NY came from extratropical Asia, one from China (Lingnam) and other from Sakhahn I. (Karafuto): the Chinese collection is atypical but the one from Sakhalin I. is very similar to the type of T. badia. Besides the three collections that I have seen from Oceania (New Caledonia, Samoa and Solomon Is.), H. aspera has been reported from Australia by Lloyd (1916a: 10; 1918: 13) as T. badia and P. badius.

Discussion:

Figs. 11-13, 43-47.

Polyporus asper Jungh., Praemis. Fl. Crypt. Javae Ins. 60. 1839.

Polystictus asper (Jungh.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 79. 1886.

Microporus asper (Jungh.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Trametes aspera (Jungh.) Pat., Essai Taxon. H^-menom. 90. 1900; Bresadola, Hedwigia 53: 69. 1912.

Polyporus heteroponis Mont., Ann. Sci. Xat. II. 16: 273. 1841. Type from Galega I., Eastern Africa.

Fomes (Impoliti) heteroporus (Mont.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(69): 19. 1885 Saccardo Syll Fung. 6: 191.1888.

Scindalma heteroporum (Mont.) 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 518. 1898 (variant spelling: S. heterosporum).

Trametes heteropora (Mont.) Bres.. Hedwigia 51: 317. 1911.

Hexagona heteropora (Mont.) Imaz., Bull. Tokvo Sci. Mus. 6: 76. 1943, non H. heteropora Pat., Jour. Bot. 3: 166. 1889.

Trametes badia Berk.. Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 1: 151. 1842. Type from Phihppines.

Trametes badia Berk, f macropora Bres., Hedwigia 51: 317. 1911. Type from Philippines, Mindanao I.

Polystictus badius (Berk.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 6: 281. 1888. non Polystictus badius (Berk) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 86. 1886.

Microporous badius (Berk) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Coriolopsis badia (Berk.) Murr.. Bull. Torrey Club 34: 466. 1907.

Hexagona badia (Berk.) Imaz., Bull. Gov. For. Exp. Sta. 57: 112. 1952.

Polyporus {Trametes) juscellus Lev. in H. Zollinger, System, Verzeich. Indischen Archipel. 15,17. 1S54. Type from Indonesia, Flores I., Bari.

Trametes fuscella (Lev.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 6: 347. 1888; Cooke, Grevillea 19: 101. 1891.

Hexagona fuscella (Lev.) Imaz., Bull. Gov. For. Exp. Sta. 57: 112. 1952.

Trametes amplopora Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 6: 1086. 1921, nomen nudum.

Trametes amplopora Lloyd ex Stevenson & Cash, Bull. Lloyd Lib. Mus. 35(8): 142. 1936.

Type from Philippines.

Hexagona amplopora (Lloyd ex Stevenson & Cash) Imaz., Bull. Gov. For. Exp. Sta. 57: 112. 1952.

Type. Holotype collected by Junghuhn, deposited at Leiden (L); merotype at BPI.

Type Locality. Java, ''in sylvis Javae inferioribus."

Basionym. Polyporus asper Jungh, 1839.

Illustrations. Junghuhn, Fl. Crypt. Javae Ins. fig. 31. 1839 (as P. asper); Lloyd, Mycol. AVrit. 7: fig. 2216. 1922 (as T. aspera); Mendoza, Philip. Jour. Sci. 65: pl. 58, fig. 3. 1938 (as T. aspera) ; Imazeki, Buh. Gov. For. Exp. Sta. 5 7 : pl. 11. fig. 32. 1952 (as H . heteropora).

Discussion. Hexagona aspera seems to represent an extreme of a hypothetical line of variation of section Hexagona; all the outstanding characteristics of section Hexagona are present in H. aspera but most of them are not easily noticed. The fasciculated trichoderm, which is a striking feature in all species assigned to this section, may be observed only in the very young fruiting bodies of H. aspera because nearly all or almost all of the total amount of hairs falls off and the pilear surface appears covered by an indistinct cutis; an atypical paraderm is sometimes present in the pilear surface of H. aspera but this structure was not observed in any other species of section Hexagona; hyphal pegs, which are so typical and conspicuous in section Hexagona and are present in the species of the two other sections of the genus, also are found in H. aspera but are considerably smaller and scarcer than those observed in any of the species of Hexagona. In regard to pore size and the occasional presence of indistinctly stratified tubes, Hexagona aspera can be compared only to H. hydnoides which has the smallest pores observed in the genus and also sometimes has tubes indistinctly stratified. H. aspera differs from H. hydnoides by the glabrescent pilear surface when young and by the presence of skeletal hyphae with larger diameter.

H. aspera represents a highly polymorphic specific complex which shows variation of several characters in many degrees. I have compared the merotypes of P asper Jungh. and P heteroporus Mont., an isotype of P. fusccllus Lev. and the holotypes of Trametes badia Berk, and T. amplopora Lloyd ex Stevenson & Cash; I consider them as representatives of a single species. The types of P. asper and P juscellus match each other perfectly while the types of T. badia and T. amplopora are almost identical although the last one shows pores somewhat larger; tbe type of P. heleroporus seems to be intermediary between T. badia and P. asper (Table 1). Some of (bese types may ajipear to represent good species if studied singly but examination of a large number of additional collections including young and old specimens has shown that there is a continuous line of variation among them and this fact leads m e to refer all under a single, specific name. The gross morphology of the pilear surface (strigose to glabrescent, zonate or not, fibrillose to smooth, with or without a dark spot) is related to the age of the specimen and the environmental conditions and is not useful in the separation of this species into smaller groups; the same is true in relation to pore size, thickness of context and length of the tubes. A good example of the polymorphism of this species can easily be observed in a collection (Merrill 8846) part deposited at BPI; it is the holotype of T. amplopora and is represented by a well-developed specimen, up to 6 mm thick, tubes 2-5.5 mm long, context less than 1 mm thick and pores of medium size, 1 per mm; another part, deposited at NY labelled as T. strigata, is a much thinner specimen, less than 3 mm thick, context up to 1 mm thick, tubes not reaching 1.5 mm long and with 2-3 pores per mm. I have noticed, however, that thin specimens, with 2-3 pores per mm, with or without a dark spot at the pilear surface, usually have the skeletal hyphae of the upper layer of the context with a distinct and broad lumen while the thicker specimens, with 3-4 pores per cm, without a dark spot behind the pilear surface usually have the skeletal hyphae of the same region much more thickened, with narrow lumen or solid. Perhaps these differences are indicative of two major morphological forms of H. aspera but I think fresh material would be necessary to prove this idea. On the other hand, I a m certain that no geographical limits can be drawn between these two possible forms because I found in the Philippine collections evidence of the presence of both kinds. This last observation might be questioned primarily because Philippine fungi are far better represented in the herbaria that I have visited than fungi of any other Asiatic region or it m a y be due to the fact that Philippines could be the possible center of origin of H. aspera.

In the Patouillard herbarium at FH is an isotype of Polyporus cohaerens, described by Leveille (1846a: 132) from Tjikoya, Java, a species considered by Bresadola (1912b: 62) as belonging to the group of P asper; this isotype (H. Zollinger 13 at FH 2893) is a dark specimen, with minute pores, 4-5 pores per mm, pores 130-200 X 95-135 p diam, thin dissepiments, 35-80 (-140) µ thick and skeletal hyphae with 2.5-3.5(-3.7) µ diam., with very narrow lumen to solid; the pilear surface is covered by particles of soil and is molded. I do not consider it as conspecific with H. aspera. There is also a second collection in the Patouillard herbarium labelled P. cohaerens, collected by S. Nantes (Xantes 2517) in the Philippines, which is not identical with the isotype of P cohaerens. In NY is a half-specimen marked as "Polyporus squamaeformis. Berk. TYPE" which I think is labelled incorrectly. I consider it to be an old and weathered specimen of H. aspera. Probably ^Murrill (1908b: 392) referred to this collection when he indicated that P. squamaeformis would hardly differ specifically from Coriolopsis badia (Berk.) ]Murr., an idea readily dispelled by Lloyd (1910b: 57; 1912a: 14S) who indicated that the type of P squamaeformis was destroyed and Murrill's indication was a bad guess; Lloyd (1910b) then erroneously quoted the type locality as Borneo although Berkeley (1854: 139) clearly indicated that it was from Khasia Mountains, India. Bresadola (1912b: 62) apparently saw the type of P squamaef ormis which he found in very poor condition (composed of a stipe and small part of the pileus) and considered it related to Polyporus florideus Berk. Some specimens from Borneo referred by Cesati (1879: 5) as P. squamaefornm are according to Bresadola (1912b) identical to P cohaerens and belong to the group of P. asper.

A specimen of H. aspera is present in NY under the name Polyporus brunneopictus Berk.; on the label this had been previously quoted as "P. brunneopictus, Berk. TYPE" but then someone, probably IMurrill (1908b: 392), corrected it, inserting the note, "This seems to be T. badia, probably confused with South American type." I do not know the source of this mistake since P. brunneopictus described by Berkeley (1856: 176) from Brazil is a very different species and belongs to the genus Amauroderma.

The names Polystictus badius (Berk.) Cooke, and Polystictus badius (Berk.) Sacc. do not represent the same taxon. The latter one was based on Trametes badia Berk, while the name recombined by Cooke (1886: 86) was based on a collection made by L'Herminier in Guadeloupe which Leveille (1846a: 138) listed as "Polyporus badius, Berk." Berkeley (1841: 453) had in fact described a P. badius from America [non Polyporus badius (Pers.) Schw., 1832] but his name had been transferred by Cooke (1885: 18) to the genus Fomes. I have examined a slice of a specimen in NY labelled as "P. badius. Berk., Guadeloupe, Exs. herb. Paris" which I believe is a part of the collection listed by Leveille (1846a); this collection does not agree either with P badius Berk., 1841 or with T. badia Berk., 1842.

I have been unable to locate or to examine the types of some species that have been considered as synonyms or as closely related to P. asper, T. badia, P fuscellus, etc. These are: (1) Polyporus fusco-purpureus, described by Persoon (1827: 172) from Rawak Island, and which was listed by Berkeley (1847: 502) and Fries (1851: 64) as the same as T. badia; it is a name validly published and older than P. asper. If the type is found and verified to be conspecific with H. aspera then the Persoon's name (1827) would have priority and a new combination would be needed. (2) Polyporus strigatus, described by Berkeley (1847: 502) from Ceylon, Hautane, was said to resemble very closely T. badia; recently Cunningham (1965: 243) transferred P. strigatus to the genus Osmoporus Sing., but, according to Cunningham (1965), P. strigatus is trimitic; thus it does not seem to have close afiinities with Osmoporus, which is typified by O. odoratus (Wulf. ex Fr.) Sing., a species with dimitic hyphal system; most of the collections found in herbaria labelled as P. strigatus are conspecific with H. aspera. (3) Trametes discolor, described from Principe Island, Western Africa, by Saccardo and Berlese (1889: 112), was considered by Bresadola and Roumeguere (1890: 31-32) and by Bresadola (1912b: 69) to be a form of T. badia.

As is usual in the genus Hexagona, the basidiospores of H. aspera also were very rarely found in herbarium specimens. Of all collections examined only four were fertile: (1) Philippines, Gulf of Davao, collector unknown. May 1905 (NY), with basidiospores (8-)9-11 X 3-4 µ; (2) China, Lingnam, Lau Shau Yan (NY), with basidiospores shghtly larger, 9.5-11 (-12) X 3-1(-4.5) µ; (3) Formosa (Taiwan), Yasuda 389, 1916 (BPI), with basidiospores 9-11.5 X 3.5-4 µ; (4) Solomon Islands, Russell Island, Froggatt 30 (BPI), with basidiospores 9-11.5 X 3.7-1.5 µ. The Philippine collection is typical and has the macroscopic aspect of the type of P. asper; the others are not so typical; the Chinese collection (Lingnam) is a thick specimen, with the pilear surface glabrescent and discolored; the Formosan collection seems to be intermediate between the types of P. asper and P. heteroporus whereas the collection from the Solomon Is. resembles in some degree the type of P. asper but it is much thicker and has smaller pores. The collection from Formosa was probably the basis for Yasuda's record (1917: 60) of Trametes heteropora from Formosa. Sawada (1959: 106) reported H. heteropora from Formosa, Java, Philippines and Japan (Ryukyus I.) but his description applies to a thicker and larger fungus with smaller spores, 5-6 X 3-3.5 µ.

A few hosts have been inchcated for H. aspera. Reinking (1919: 482; 1920a: 174; 1920b: 532) listed T. badia and T. aspera from the Philippines on Parkia javanica (Lam.) ]Merr., Anisoptera sp., Mallotus sp., Mangifera indica L., Parashorea plicata Brandis, Elaeocarpus sp. and Ficus sp; Teodoro (1937: 360) listed H. aspera from the Philippines growing on the hosts mentioned above and added also Psidium guajava L. Petrak (1941: 353) listed a T. badia from China (Lingnam) growing on Eucalyptus sp.; Ahmed (1951: 52) referred T. badia from Pakistan on Shorea robusta Gaertn.; Khan (1952: 75) listed T. badia also on Morus alba L. from Pakistan; Butler and Bisby (1960: 201) listed T. badia as growing on logs of Ficus religiosa L., on a stump of Euphorbia neriifolia L. and on dead trees of Ficus bengalensis L. and Spondias mangifera Willd., all these from West Bengal, India.

Some of the collections in herbaria were labelled as found on the following hosts (dead wood): Anisoptera sp., in Philippines (BPI), Ccltis sp. in Philippines (BPI), Diospj/ros sp. in Philippines (BPI), Diospyros discolor Willd. in Philippines (BPI), Elaeocarpus sp. in Phihppines (BPI), Eucalyptus sp. in China (NY), Ficus sp. in Philippines (BPI), Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze in Philippines, Koordersiodendron pinnatum (Blanco) Merr. in Philippines [BPI), Mallotus sp. in Philippines (BPI), Mangifera sp. in Vietnam (FH), Psidium guajava L. in Philippines (FH), Shorea gui.^o (Blanco) Blume in Phihppines (SP), Tamarindus indica L. in India and Philippines (BPI) and Vitex sp. in India (BPI).

The associated rot is apparently unknown.

Hexagona aspera may occur in continental Africa but I have not seen any authentic African collection; the type of Polyporus heteroporus Mont. [= H. heteroporus (Mont.) Imaz., 1943, not H. heteropora Pat., 1889] collected on an eastern African island is the only African collection that I found conspecific with H. aspera. Bresadola and Roumeguere (1890: 31-32) and Bresadola (1912b: 69) indicated that a collection from Principe I., western Africa, described by Saccardo and Berlese (1889: 112) as Trametes discolor is T. badia. There is also a record by Wakefield (1914: 259) of T. badia in Nigeria, (Meko and Ayetoro).

Polyporus badius Berk, was listed by Leveille (1846a: 138) from Guadeloupe, West Indies, based on a collection made by L'Herminier. Saccardo (1888: 281) was probably referring to this collection when he indicated that Polystictus badius (Berk.) Cooke, occurred in Guadeloupe. I have examined a fragment at NY which I believe belongs to L'Herminier's collection and I consider it not to be conspecific with H. aspera.

Theissen (1911: 219, 240) listed some collections from the southern part of Brazil identified as "Fomes heteroporus Mont." and "Trametes aspera Jungh."; Bresadola (1920) examined a collection in the old herbarium of Berlin from Brazil labelled Boletus sericeus Link, w-hich he published as Trametes badia var. sericea Bres.; Felippone (1928: 339) reported "Polystictus (Trametes) badius Berk." from Uruguay. I have not seen any of these collections; all must be regarded as doubtful.