Monographs Details: Hexagona apiaria (Pers.) Fr.
Authority: Fidalgo, Oswaldo & Fidalgo, Maria E. 1968. Polyporaceae from Venezuela. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17 (2): 1--34.
Description:Species Description - MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS. Fruiting body annual, solitary, always sessile, attached to the substrate by a small pilear portion; pileus dimidiate, subreniform or fiabehiform, applanate to concave, (3-)4.5-11 (-15) X (2-)3.5-8(-9) X (0.2-)0.3-0.8(-2.5) cm; corky-coriaceous to corky; pilear surface ferrugineous-brown, MP-14D8 (Cafe Creme), MP-15A10 (English Oak), MP-13B7 (Suntan) to black, sometimes appearing reddish-brown, umbrinous-brown or grayish-black at the center, MP-7A10 (New Cocoa), MP-8C9 (London Smoke +), MP-16A6 (Taupe), strigose, densely covered by black, fasciculated hairs, often falling off with age leaving a glabrescent, zonate surface with a few appressed, radial fibrils; margin straight to curved upwards, thin to thick, usually concolorous with the pilear surface. Context corky-coriaceous, permanently darkening by the KOH solution, subhomogeneous, ferrugineous-brown, MP-13F10, MP-13D12, MP-13G7 (Toast) to MP-14C11 (Cookie), usually very thin, (0.5-) 1-3 mm thick. Hymenial surface varying in color considerably, according to the age of the fruiting body, beige to yellowish-brown, reddish-gray to light grav, MP-12D7 (Bran), ^IP-13C6 (Polo Tan), MP-5B7 (Cobweb), MP-6B7 or MP-3A7; usually poroid, with angular-hexagonal pores, rarely subdaedaloid, (1-)2-4(-8) pores per cm; tubes beige to grayish, MP-5A8 or MP-13D8, very variable in length, (0.1-)0.2-1 (-2.4) cm long; dissepiments (110-)220-490 µ thick. MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS. Pilear surface with a fasciculated trichoderm, with long, dark hairs, branched and usually prostrate, 380-4000(-7000) µ long, 80-250 (-350) µ diam, formed by closely packed skeletal and generative hyphae; with age the hairs falling off partially or almost completely and then the pilear surface appearing as covered by a thin, dark brown to black cutis, (4.5-) 10-25 (-50) µ thick, formed by narrow, dark hyphae, 1-2.5 µ diam, agglutinated throughout their lengths with exception of the apical, inflated portions often appearing free and showing anticlinal orientation with all hyphae running in a periclinal orientation. Context trimitic. Generative hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, septate, with clamps, branched, nonamyloid, (1-) 1.5-2.5 (-3) µ diam, usually collapsing throughout the mature fruiting body; skeletal hyphae yellowish-brown to brown, thickened but usually showing a distinct, broad lumen, a few subsolid; nonseptate but sometimes with a few delicate, simple septa near the apical portion, straight to flexuous, aciculiform, unbranched, (1.5-) 2.5-5.5 (-7) µ diam; binding hyphae hyaline to yellowish brown, thickened to subsolid, much branched, nonseptate, 1.5-3 (-4) µ diam, abundantly found in the lower part of the context and in the dissepiments. Context in section showing loose, fibrose upper part (with hyphae mostly arranged in periclinal orientation) and a compact lower part (with hyphae closely interwoven without a definite orientation). Dissepiments trimitic, formed by hyphae showing the same dense arrangement of the lower part of the context and also without a definite orientation. Hymenium: setae, cystidia and cystidioles not found; hymenium lined by sub-hyaline to yellowish-brown cystidioid hyphae, projecting up to 25 p, and having diam of 2.5-3.5 (-5.5) µ, these structures representing only tlie projection of endings of skeletal hyphae emerging among the basidia and often projecting beyond them; hyphal pegs abundant, densely distributed, yellow to yellowish-brown, cylindric to conic, (30-)60-170 (-200) X (18-)30-80 µ; basidia clavate, hyaline, 23-29 X 5.5-6.5(-7.5) µ, very difficult to find in herbarium specimens, appearing to collapse very early; in some collections a somewhat imperfect honeycombed formation observed; basidioles hyaline, clavate, 10-20 X 4-6 µ; basidiospores hyaline, cylindrical, smooth, nonamyloid, 11-15 (-16) X 4.5-6 µ.
Distribution and Ecology - Specimens examined. Asia. CAMBODIA. Kep, Reinking 9285, 9278, May 28, 1920 (BPI). CEYLON. Locality not indicated, Koenig (herb. Berkeley at K, holotype of H. koenign; herb. Fries at UPS, merotype); locality not indicated, Gardner (K); locality not indicated. Fetch (Lloyd 19600 at BPI, as H. hirta); locality and collector not indicated (herb. G. Massee at NY, as H. crinigera). Peradeniya, Fetch (Lloyd 55023, 55024 at BPI). Sigiriya, Fetch, Aug 1912 (Sydow, Fungi Exot. Exs. 205 at NY, BPI, FH). CHINA. Locality not indicated, Deng 4676, 1934 (BPI); Hainan: Tan-hsien, Deng 5846, Aug 31, 1934 (BPI), Deng 8264, Jan 12 1935 (BPI); Yen-hsien, Deng 3080, Jun 10, 1934 (MO 73316 at BPI). Kwangtung: Hung Slian, Reinking, May 27, 1919 (Lloyd 55019 at BPI) Reinking 4717 May 1919 (BPI). FORMOSA (TAIWAN). Locality not indicated, Yasudxi 642, Jan 2, 1921 (Lloyd 19594 at BPI, as H. deschampsii). INDIA. Locality not indicated, Wight (NY, merotyjie of P. wightii). Behar, Soane River, collector? (herb. Hooker at K). Madras: Coimbatore, Marudarajan (Lloyd 55421 at BPI). INDONESIA. Java I. Rollifson Nursery, HenschaU (herb. Berkeley at K, holotype of H. henschalli). MALAYA. Pahang: Tembeling, Corner 28306, Nov 10, 1930 (SP 28895). NORTH VIETNAM (INDO-CHINA). Hanoi, Demange (Lloyd 55015 at BPI) ; Hanoi, Demange 271 (herb. N. Patouillard at FH 2677); Hanoi, Duport 668, Jun 1911 (herb. Patouillard at F H 2677). Tonkin: La Pho, Demange 184, Jan 19, 1908 (herb. Patouillard at F H 2677). PHILIPPINES. Luzon I. Bataan Prov.: locality not indicated, Curran, Nov. 1909 (F.B. 19223; Lloyd 19595 at BPI, as H. deschampsii); Lamao River, Mt. Mariveles, Williams 115, Feb 1904 (NY, as Favolus williamsii), Williams, Feb 1904 (Lloyd 2470 at BPI), Burgos, Nov 30, 1906 (Lloyd 2452 at BPI), Elmer 6917, Nov 1904 (NY, as Favolus williamsii) ; Limay, McGregor, Nov 27, 1924 (B.S. 47964 at F H ) ; Lamao, For. Reserve, Curran, Jun 1907 (F.B. 7388 at NY); locality not indicated, Curran, Nov 1909 (F.B. 19226, Lloyd 55018 at BPI; at F H 2677) ; Bulacan Prov.: Angat, Ramos & Edafio, Feb 1919 (Lloyd 55020, 55022 at BPI); Cagayan Prov.: Ramos, Mar 1909 (B.S. 7592; Lloyd 19596 at BPI, as H. deschampsii) ; Laguna Prov.: Los Baiios, Quisiunbing (Lloyd 19602 at BPI, as H. hirta) ; Mount Maquiling, Broirn, 1912 (B.S. 16031, Lloyd 2343 at BPI); Ferres 9344 (Lloyd 55239 at BPI, holotype of H. caliginosa); Llocos Norte Prov.: Burgos, Ramos, 1917 (B.S. 27821, Lloyd 55021 at BPI, K, FH); Nueva Vizcaya Prov.: Dupax, McGregor, 1912 (B.S. 14362, Lloyd 2344 at BPI); Pangasinan Prov.: Labrador, Mt. San Isidro, Fenix, Nov 1917 (B.S. 30120, Lloyd 19591 at BPI, holotype of H. atra); Quezon Prov. (Tayabas): Mt. Malaraya, Curran & Merritt, Nov 1907 (F.B. 8956 at NY, K); Umisan, F.B. Curran, Alar 1908 (F.B.15931, Lloyd 55017 at BPI); Tarlac Prov.: Merrill 3600, Nov 1903 Lloyd 2342 at BPI). Mindanao I. Davao Prov.: Santa Cruz, WiUiams, 1905 (NY); Davao, Copeland 635, Mar 25, 1904 (NY, K), Copeland, Alar 1904 (Lloyd 55016 at BPI). Mindoro I. Locahty not indicated, Conklin, Nov 15, 1953 (SP) ; Puerto Galera, Santos 40, Apr 23, 1935 (BPI). Palawan I. Silanga, Merrill, M ay 1913 (B.S. 8922 at NY; Lloyd 2345 at BPI) ; Puerto Princesa, Werner 80, Apr 14, 1917 (BPI). RAWAK ISLAND. Gaudichaud (herb. Bresadola at BPI, merotype of Polyporus apiarius). SOUTH VIETNAM. Cochinchina (Nam Ky). collector unknown (herb. Patouillard at FH 2677).
Distribution and Ecology - Oceania. AUSTRALIA. Locality and collector unknown (herb. Saccardo. Lloyd 21560 at BPI, as H. hirta). Queensland: Bloomfield River, Bauer (K, as H. wightii). Port Denninson, Fitzalan, collector unknown (NY, K), Shann, collector unknown (K, as H. wightii) ; Toowoomba, Hartmann, 1884 (herb. Saccardo, PAD, as H. crinigera), Hartmann (K); locality and collector unknown (herb. Massee, NY); locality and collector unknown (Lloyd 19586 at BPI, as H. wightii). NEW ZEALAND. Locality not indicated, Hehns (herb, von Hoehnel at FH 2298). SAMOA ISLAND. Collector unknown (herb. Berlin, Lloyd 19587 at BPI). Geographical Distribution. So far there is evidence that H. apiaria occurs some southern countries of continental Asia (India, IMalaya, Cambodia, China, North and South Vietnam), in adjacent islands (Rawak, New Guinea, Celebes, Ceylon, Philippines, Java, Formosa and Japan) and also in Australia, New Zealand and Samoa.
Figs. 1-10, 40-42.
Polyporus apianus Pers. in Gaudichaud, Botanique Voy. LTranie Freyc. 169-170. (1826) 1827.
Scenidium apiarium (Pers.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3: 516. 1898.
Favolus apianus (Pers.) Ricker, Phihp. Jour. Sci. 1 (Suppl. 4): 286. 1906.
(?) Boletus favus [L., Sp. Pl. 1645-1646. 1763]. Type from China.
Hexagona fava (L.) ex Hariot, Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 7: 204. 1891, non H. Java (Bull.) ex Quel., Fl. Mycol. Fr. 369.1888.
(?) Polyponis (Favolus) sinensis Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1: 345. 1821. Type from China.
Trametes sinensis (Fr.) Fr., Epicr. Syst. Mycol. 489. 1838, pro parte.
Hexagona sinensis (Fr.) Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 100. 1851, pro parte.
Scenidium sinensis (Fr.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3: 516. 1898.
Polyporus (Scenidium) ivightii KL, Linnaea 7: 200. 1832. Type from "India orientale."
Favolus wightii Kl. herb, name, incidental mention by Klotzsch (1832: 200).
Hexagona wrightii (Kl.) Fr., Epicr. Syst. Mycol. 496. 1838.
Hexagona wightii (Kl.) Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 100. 1851.
Scenidium wightii (Kl.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3: 515. 1898.
Favolus wightii (Kl.) Ricker, Phihp. Jour. Sci. 1 (Suppl. 4): 286. 1906.
Hexagona koenigii Berk., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10: 379. 1843. Type from Ceylon.
Hexagona henschalli Berk, ex Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 3(Syn. Hexagona): 11. 1910. Type from Java.
Hexagona atra Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 7: 1156. 1922. Type from Philippines.
Hexagona caliginosa Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 7: 1156. 1922. Type from Phihppines. Favolus willianisii Murr. herb. name.
Type. Holotype collected by C. Gaudichaud, 1817-1820, deposited at Leiden (L); merotype ex-Bresadola herb, at BPI.
Type Locality. Rawak Island, small island near Waigeo Island which is NW of Dutch New Guinea at 00°01'21"-00°2' lat S and 130°56'37"—130°57'18" long E of Grw.
Basionym. Polyporus apiarius Pers. in Gaudichaud, 1827.
Illustrations. Persoon in Gaudichaud, Botanique Voy. Uranie Freyc. pl. 2, fig. 5. 1827 (as P apiarius); Klotzsch, Linnaea 7: 200. 1832 (as P. wightii); Corda, Anleit. zu Stud, der Mycol. tab. H, 75. figs. 31-32. 1S42 (as H. apiaria); Nees & A. Henry, Das System der Pilze, tab. 30. 1858 (as H. wightii); Bischoff, Kryptogamenkunde, fig. 3410. 1860 (as H. wightii); Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 3 (Syn. Hexagona): figs. 276-277, 279. 1910 (as H. apiaria); Bose, Bull. Carmichael Med. Coh. 2: fig. I4. 1921 (as H. apiaria); Lloyd, IMycol. Writ. 7: fig. 2275. 1923 (as H. atra); Mendoza, Philip. Jour. Sci. 65: pl. 57, fig. A. 1938 (as H. apiaria); Heim, Les Champignons, fig. 58. 194S (as H. apiaria); Imazeki, Bull. Gov. Exp. Sta. 57: pl. ix, fig. 24. 1952 (as H. apiaria) ; Bagchee, Indian For. Records, I., 1 (2): pl. 1-3, figs. 1-10. 1953 (as H. apiaria); Cunningham, N. Z. Dep. Sci. Ind. Res. Bull. 164: pl. 7, fig. a. 1965 (as H. apiaria).
Discussion. Perhaps the earlier valid name for this species is Polyporus (Favolus) sinensis Fr., which Fries (1821: 345) indicated was based on a specimen in the herbarium of Linnaeus, collected in China by Osbeck and labelled Boletus favus [Sp. Pl. 1615. 1763]. Unfortunately this specimen apparently is lost and the application of this name has became confused; thus P sinensis Fr. must be considered "nomen dubium." Klotzsch (1832: 200) when he pubhshed Polyporus (Scenidium) wightii from India, indicated that it was the same as Boletus favus [L.] and P sinensis Fr. One year later, Klotzsch (1833: 482) apparently forgot that he had placed P sinensis Fr. in the synonymy of P wightii Kl. as he listed a specimen gathered by Telfair on Mauritius I. as Polyporus (Apus) sinensis Fr. Fries (1838: 489, 496) did not accept Klotzsch's ideas; he included P. wightii Kl. in the genus Hexagona while P. sinensis Fr. was transferred to Trametes; at that time Fries (1838) listed T. sinensis (Fr.) Fr. as occurring in "China, India Orient, et insula Mauritii," obviously including Telfair's collection. Later Fries (1851: 100) transferred T. sinensis to Hexagona and considered it to be distinct from H. wightii (Kl.) Fr. as it was "alveohs intus non setosis." Berkeley (1839: 383) reexamined Telfair's collection from Mauritius and pointed out that it was not P sinensis Fr., since it was more hispid and strongly zoned; he renamed it Polyporus (Favolus) klotzschii Berk. The opinion expressed by Berkeley (1839) leads one to suspect that Berkeley saw at some time the original material of P. sinensis Fr. (= Boletus favus). Lloyd (1910a: 45) presented the idea that Telfair's collection was the only specimen that Fries ever saw as P sinensis Fr.; this is rather unlikely since much earlier Fries (1821) had already associated this name with the specimen of Boletus favus from Linnaeus' herbarium and had indicated between parentheses "v.s.," which means that he had examined a dry specimen. The name P. sinensis sometimes applied in herbaria to specimens of H. apiaria, must remain as "nomen dubium" until a type can be found. The Telfair collection, which is deposited at Kew with part in Fries' herbarium (UPS), under the name of P sinen,sis Fr., has been examined and I consider it to be a smallpored form of Hexagona hirta (P. Beauv. ex Fr.) Fr.
I have examined and compared merotypes of P. apiarius Pers., and P wightii and the holotypes of H. koenigii Berk., H. caliginosa Lloyd, H. atra Lloyd, and H. henschalli Berk, ex Lloyd. I believe that they represent specimens of a single though very variable species. The merotypes of P apiarius (deposited at BPI) and of P wightii (deposited at NY) match each other perfectly; they show a strigose pilear surface and large, hexagonal pores and represent the typical and common aspect of H. apiaria. There is in Fries' herbarium (UPS) a collection labelled "Scenidium wightii, India orientalis, leg. Dr. Wight, comm. Klotzsch." that I presume to be a label error since this collection does not agree at all with the description and illustration given by Klotzsch (1832) of Polyporus (Scenidium) wightii Kl. or with the merotype of it deposited at NY. The type of H. koenigii (holotype at K and merotype at UPS) is representative of a less common aspect of H. apiaria showing a thick fruiting body with large, subdaedaloid pores; many additional collections were found showing an intermediate position between the common aspect of H. apiaria and those lu-esented by H. koenigii. This fact can be easily observed in the Australian collections where the specimens are often thicker, more rigid and are many times with subdaedaloid pores. The holotype of H. atra Lloyd (deposited at BPI) is an old specimen of H. apiaria with the pilear surface dark brown and washed off and is without the strigose aspect that is so cluiracteristic of the fruiting bodies of this species; it has a ferrugineous brown hymenial surface, with 4-6 pores per cm. The holotype of H. caliginosa Lloyd is, I believe, an old fruiting body of H. apiaria in which the hairs have disappeared completely; it is a thin specimen, with the pilear surface covered by a dark cutis and has medium pores, 6-7 per cm. The holotype of H. henschalli Berk, ex Lloyd (deposited at K) is also an old specimen of H. apiaria but the pilear surface shows an unusual light brown color; it is almost devoid of hairs and it is zonate; it has the hymenial surface grayish-brown, with hexagonal, large pores, 3-4(-5) per cm. All the types mentioned were found to have the same microscopic structure, with the same range of variation in the diameter of the hyphae, the same frequency and size of hyphal pegs and, the same kind of cystidioid hyphae lining the hymenium; unfortunately all these types are sterile and basidiospores could not be compared.
Hexagona deschampsii described by Hariot (1891: 207) from a collection made by Deschamps in Ceylon seems to be related or even conspecific with H. apiaria. Lloyd (1910a: 9) published a good illustration of the type of H. deschampsii and gave additional information about it, describing it as having 3 pores per m "rather shallow, bright ferruginous (never glaucous) and with prominent setae." Lloyd (1910a) indicated also that several collections had been sent for determination to Berkeley and were referred by Berkeley to H . crinigera. According to Lloyd the real relationships of H. deschampsii are with H. apiaria from which it differs by being smaller, thinner and never having the dense coat of rigid hairs characteristic of H. apiaria. Bresadola (1912b: 72) apparently reported the second then known collection of H . deschampsii, listing it from the Philippines (F. B. 19223) and indicating that in his sense H. deschampsii is a subglabrous variation of H. wightii; the collection reported by Bresadola (1912b) is now deposited at BPI (Lloyd 19595), it is a medium-pored specimen, with (5.5-) 6-8 pores per cm with the pilear surface worn, showing a few rigid hairs and the same microstructure of H. apiaria; this collection has exactly the same aspect of a few others found at NY included with the sheets of H. wightii that Murrill initially labelled as "Favolus williamsii Murr.," an herbarium name; the collections originally labelled as F. williamsii are represented by old specimens with the pilear surface washed off, glabrescent, and ferruginous-brown and with hymenial surface with 5-7 (-8) pores per cm. I have not seen the holotype of H. deschampsii; a merotype of this species in BP I is represented by a fragment, insufficient for a conclusive examination; it shows the same microscopic characteristic observed in H. apiaria such as: skeletal hyphae yellowish-brown, thickened but with broad lumen, 3-6(-6.5) µ diam; binding hyphae yellowish, thickened, much branched, 1.5-3 µ diam, abundant in the lower part of the context; generative hyphae hyaline, septate, with clamps, few seen, mostly in collapse, 1.8-2.5(-3) µ diam; pilear surface covered by a thin cutis, 18-22 µ thick, formed by hyphae strongly agglutinated; hymenium sterile, lined by a dense layer of yellowish-brown cystidioid hyphae (endings of projecting skeletal hyphae), 3-5.5(-6.5) µ diam, frequently interrupted by yellowish-brown hyphal pegs. T w o additional collections found at BP I labelled as H . deschampsii are in my opinion specimens of H. hirta. A collection at NY labelled as "H. crinigera Fr., Ceylon, ex. herb. G. Massee" has large and shallow pores, (1.5-)2-3(-4) per cm, with the pilear surface ferruginousbrown and glabrescent; it agrees quite well with the illustration of H . deschampsii given by Lloyd (1910a: fig. 282); I consider this specimen as a weathered fruiting body of H. apiaria.
Among the species of Hexagona, H. hirta seems to be the closest relative of H. apiaria and is distinguished from H. apiaria in having a larger number of pores per cm, no cystidioid hyphae projecting in the hymenium and a different geographical distribution. H. capillacea, a South American species, presents the same general habit of H. apiaria but is easily separated from H. apiaria in having pseudo-setae (seta-like bodies) in the hymenium, structures so far not observed in H. apiaria.
Basidiospores are rare in the herbarium specimens. Of all the collections examined only one from Ceylon (Lloyd 55023 at BPI) was found with basidiospores attached to the basidia; in a few other collections spores, showing the same dimensions and shape of the basidiospores observed in the Ceylonese collection, were seen scattered among the hairs of the pilear surface.
It usually has been reported as found on the bark of dead trunks or decorticated wood of dead usually erect branches; very few hosts have been associated with this species: Bose (1921: 5) found it on bamboo-clamps; Bagchee (1953: 20) hsted it as growing on Shorea robusta Gaertn.; Bagchee and Singh (I960: 252, 301, 304) reported it also on Heriteria minor Roxb. and Schleicheria trijuga Willd.; and Butler and Bisby (1960: 185) recorded it also on logs of Mangifera indica L. and of Mimusops elengii L. and on clamps of Bambusa arundinacea Willd., all in West Bengal, India.
A collection from North Vietnam now deposited in FH was labelled as being found on trunk of "Let-chi," which is Litchi sinensis J. F. Gmel.
Apparently the only information about an associated rot is given by Bagchee and Singh (1960) who described it as a "yellow slash rot."
H. apiaria seems to be rather common in the Philippines where it has been abundantly collected on the islands of Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro and Palawan; it has been recorded by many authors such as: Berkeley (1842: 152), Leveille (1844: 199; 1846b: 187), Massee (1899: 176), Ricker (1906: 286), Murrih (1907: 469; 1908a: 264; 1908b: 399), Lloyd (1910a: 6), Bresadola (1912b: 72), Sydow and Sydow (1914: 158), Graff (1922: 227), Teodoro (1937: 317) and Mendoza (1938: 93).
H. apiaria was described by Persoon (1827: 169) from Rawak I.; the species also has been reported from other Asiatic islands such as: Java by Leveille (1844: 199), New Guinea by Cooke (1892: 164), Hennings (1894: 31) and Imazeki (1952: 112), Ceylon by Berkeley (1843: 379), Berkeley and Broome (1875: 56), Lloyd (1910a: 6) and Fetch (1916: 25, 31, 56), Celebes by Hennings (1900a: 12), Formosa by Sawada (1931: 7) and Japan by Hara (1954: 153).
From continental Asia most of the reports come from India: Klotzsch (1832: 200), Berkeley (1854: 166), Bose (1921: 5; 1924: 145), Bagchee (1953: 20) and Bagchee and Singh (1960: 252, 301, 304). There are some records of its presence in southern China by Teng (1934: 208; 1939: 418) who reported it from Hainan and Kwangtung and by Wei and Hwang (1939: 349) who listed it from Kwangtung. Patouillard (1928a: 10) reported it from South Vietnam. Austrahan collections were recorded by Cooke (1882: 133; 1892: 164) from Queensland (Port Denninson and Toowoomba) and from Victoria; also by Cunningham (1950: 247; 1965: 254) from Queensland. The record of Lloyd (1923: 1216) of H. hirta from Austraha was based on a specimen (Lloyd 21560) of H. apiaria that I found in BPI. The specimens from New Zealand and Samoa are apparently the first records for those areas. Cunningham (1965: 255) recorded H. apiaria also from the Solomon Is.
Besides these records from Asiatic and Oceanic areas there are two literature reports of a H. wightii (Kl.) Fr. from Africa, both from Ghana (Gold Coast), one by Dade (1940: 223) who listed a collection (Johnson 100) from Aburi and a second by Piening (1962: 39) who repeated Dade's record. The collection listed by Dade (1940) is deposited at K. I consider it to be H. hirta; it is a large-pored form, with (4-) 5-6 pores per cm, with the hymenium lined only by basidia (without cystidioid hyphae which are so characteristic of the hymenium of H. apiaria) and it is fertile, showing basidiospores slightly smaller than those found in the Asiatic collections of H. apiaria. There is also a record of a H. sinensis (Fr.) Fr. listed by Doidge (1950: 518) from Angola, Huilla. I have not examined this collection but I have not found any further evidence of the presence of H. apiaria in Africa.
Lloyd (1910a: 6) pointed out that H. apiaria occurs in the American tropics because he saw in the old herbarium of Berlin a collection which apparently was collected in Guadeloupe, West Indies. I found at BPI (Lloyd 55036) a slice of this collection marked as, "H. wightii, Guadeloupe, Exs. herb. Berlin." Without question the specimen is H. apiaria but I suspect that there was a label mixup and that the report was in error. There is also a collection of H. apiaria at NY from G. Massee's herbarium labelled as collected in Brazil and determined as H. crinigera. I doubt that it was ever collected there; I believe an incorrect label was mistakenly attached to the specimen.