Monographs Details: Coriolus caperatus (Berk.) Murrill
Authority: Fidalgo, Oswaldo & Fidalgo, Maria E. 1968. Polyporaceae from Venezuela. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17 (2): 1--34.
Family:Polyporaceae
Description:Species Description - MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS, sporophore: annual, sessile, applanate, dimidiate, conchate, flabelliform, effused-reflexed, ligneous and rigid on drying, at times, when very thin, somewhat flexible, pileus: applanate, dimidiate, flabelliform, (1.5-)3-9 cm long, (2-) 4-12 cm wide and 1-4 (-7) mm thick, eventually laterally connate, nodose or aculeate at the base, abhymenial surface: at first, soft, velutinate, concentrically zonate, yellowish to golden-brown zones, MP-7A12 (Cochin) to MP-14J8 (Maple Sugar), becoming glabrous, hard, concentrically zonate, radially striate and sulcate, chocolate-brown, MP-8J9 (Hindu), at the base, and more differentiated to the margin, with glabrous, dark vinaceous-brown zones, MP-56J1, 2 mm wide, alternating with velutinate zones; in very old pileus the whole surface becoming glabrous, sometimes paler, MP-12D6 (Honeysuckle); at times, hard and branched projections present at the base, margin: variable, entire, undulate, lobate, crenate to dentate, acute, thin to very thin, never concolorous with the abhymenial surface, delimited above by a whitish to isabelline band, MP-11B2 (Putty), 1(-2) mm wide, and below by a sterile band, 1-2(-5) mm wide, context: clearly duplex at first, becoming pseudohomogeneous with age, up to 6 mm thick; upper layer soft, up to 1 mm thick, golden-brown, MP-7A12 (Cochin); lower context hard, fibrous, silky, dark brown, MP-15C11 (Cocoa Brown 4-) to MP-15A7 (Soapstone); with KOH the trama and dissepiments turning immediately black and remaining permanently darker on drying, tubes : usually 1, up to 3 indistinct layers, 1-2 mm deep, much paler than the lower context, beige, MP-11B2 (Putty) to MP-12C5 (Manila), poroid surface: poroid, white when fresh, isabelline, grayish to brownish-gray, MP-11B2 (Putty) to MP-13B5 (Mavis); pores medium to small, isodiametric, circular, subangular to angular, 3-5(-6) per mm, 140-200 µ diam; dissepiments thick, entire, obtuse, at times thin and nearly acute, 25-60 (-100) µ thick. MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS, surface: a loose trichoderm formed by anticlinal hyphae, isolated or in compact tufts up to 1000 µ long, mostly consisting of pale yellow skeletal hyphae, 2-4.5 µ diam and few generative hyphae, 1.5-2.5 µ diam. context: hyphal system trimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, delicate, thin-walled, 1-1.5 (-2) µ. diam, branched, with clamp-connections rare and inconspicuous, present in the most delicate hyphae; skeletal hyphae yellow to ferruginous, straight, thick-walled, (2-) 2.5-3.5 (-4.5) p diam, unbranched, lumen conspicuous, without clamp-connections or simple septa; binding hyphae yellow to pale ferruginous, very tortuous, thick-walled, 1.5-2.5 µ diam, much branched, without clamp-connections or simple septa, less frequent than the skeletal hyphae. dissepiments: binding hyphae predominant, hymenium: setae and cystidia not observed; hyphal pegs cylindric or somewhat conical, yellow to ferruginous, 25-50 µ long, with obtuse and rounded tips; basidia hyaline, clavate, 4-sterigmate, 10-14 X 3.5-4.5 µ, soon becoming gelatinized and then disappearing; basidiospores hyaline, cylindric, smooth, thin-walled, nonamyloid, (5-)6-8(-10) X 2-3 µ.

Distribution and Ecology - Distribution. Coriolus caperatus is known from tropical regions of the world, is particularly common in South America, Central America and the West Indies, but is rare in Africa and Asia. Reports from Venezuela are: San Fernando de Apure, Grisol 54, 59, 62, 1923 (Patouillard & Heim, 1928: 270); El Limon, Sydow 258, 1927 (Sydow, 1930: 32); Carabobo, Ocumare de la Costa, 15 m alt, Toro 126, Dec 25, 1930 (Overholts, 1934: 312, as Polyporus subglabrescens); Guarico, near Uverito, on road to Parapara, 450 m alt, Chardon dc Toro 735, Jul 27, 1932; Tachira, La Granja, near Rubio, 1020-1050 m alt., Chardon 1232, Sep 14, 1932; Yaracuy, N of San Pablo, 360 m alt, Chardon 1311, Sep 27, 1932 (Overholts, 1934: 310); Edo. Miranda, Guatopo Forest, 800 m alt, Dennis 1290, Jun 1958 (Dennis, 1965: 235). From VENEZUELA, the following collections have been examined: Bolivar: Ptari-tepui, 1400 m alt, Maguire dt Wurdack 33980, Dec 19, 1952 (NY); Rio Saca, 420-450 m alt, Wurdack dc Guppy 90, Oct 18, 1954 (NY); Chimanta Massif, Torono-tepui, 515 m alt, Steyermark dc Wurdack 1402, 1405, Mar 13, 1955 (NY); Cerro Marimarota, in slope forest on eastern outlier (Cerro La Puerta), 150 m alt, Wurdack cfc Monachino 41426, Jan 26, 1956 (NY). Monagas: Santa Barbara Camp, picnic grounds at Sinclair Oil Co., Maguire, Kunhardt, Jr. & Politi 27285, Oct 26, 1948 (NY). Amazonas: Cerro Sipapo (Paraque), 600 m alt, Maguire d Politi 27459, 27460, Nov 27, 1948 (NY); Rio Orinoco, Rio Cunucunuma, near Culebra, 100 m alt, Maguire, Cowan dc Wurdack 29762, Nov 27,1950 (NY). Habitat, Hosts and Economic Importance. Rot unknown. No host reported from Venezuela. The collections are usually reported as occurring on logs and fallen trunks.

Discussion:

Figs. 15-16.

Polyporus caperatus Berk., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. I. 3: 391. 1839; Overh. in Chardon & Toro, Mycol. Expl. Venezuela 310. 1934.

Polystictus caperatus (Berk.) Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 92. 1851; Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 28(1-2): 32. 1930; Dennis, Kew Bull. 19(2): 235. 1965.

Microporus caperatus (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Coriolopsis caperata (Berk.) Murr., N. Am. Fl. 9(2): 77. 1908.

Trametes caperata (Berk.) Rick, Broteria Ci. Nat. 6: 154. 1937.

Polyporus phocinus Berk. & Br., Jour. Linn. Soc. 14: 52. (1875) 1873. Type from Ceylon (teste Bresadola, 1916: 226).

Polystictus phocinus (Berk. & Br.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 86. 1886.

Microporus phocinus (Berk. & Br.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 3(3): 497. 1898.

Trametes dibapha Berk, in Warming, Vidensk. Meddel. 31-32: 32. 1880. Type, A. Glaziou 8545, from Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara State, Brazil (teste Murrill, 1908: 77).

Polyporus purpureo-badius Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr.. 8: 53-54. 1892. Type, J. Dybowski, from Brazzaville, Congo (teste Bresadola, 1916: 226).

Polystictus purpureo-badius (Pat.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 11: 92. 1895.

Microporus purpureo-badius (Pat.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 497. 1898.

Coriolus purpureo-badius (Pat.) Pat., Essai Taxon. Hymenom. 94. 1900.

Coriolopsis sub glabrescens Murr., N. Am. Fl. 9(2): 77. 1908. Type, Underwood & Earle 1329, from Pine Hill, Cuba (NY).

Polystictus subglabrescens (Murr.) Sacc. & Trott. in Sacc, Syll. Fung. 21: 323-324. 1912.

Polyporus subglabrescens (Murr.) Overh., Sci. Surv. P. R. & Virgin Is. 8: 166. 1926; Overh. in Chardon & Toro, Mycol. Expl. Venezuela 312. 1934.

Type. Coll. Telfair, at BM.

Type Locality. Mauritius I.

Basionym. Polyporus caperatus Berk., 1839.

Discussion. Coriolus caperatus is a well marked species with little variation and therefore the collections in herbaria are in general correctly named. We were not able to examine the type from Mauritius Is., Africa. The species is more common in the American tropics than in any other part of the World. Coriolopsis subglabrescens described from Cuba is, in our opinion, not specifically distinct from Coriolus caperatus. AVe have examined the type of Coriolopsis subglabrescens at NY and have found few minor differences from the typical collections of Coriolus caperatus: (1) the pores are 115-135 µ diam, i.e., 5-6 per mm and dissepiments 65-85 µ thick; (2) hyphal pegs are shorter, 25-30 p long; (3) skeletal hyphae are somewhat narrower, 2-2.5 (-3) µ diam. We noted also that the collections with such characters are often subglabrescent and show, more frequently, 2-3 layers of tubes. To the same evolutionary line belongs what Murrill (1908: 77) called Coriolopsis nigrocinerea, possibly a good species. Its type, examined at NY, shows characters varying in an opposite direction: (1) pores 2-3 per mm; (2) abhymenial surface with zones narrower, with a blackish shade and remaining velutinate; (3) hyphal pegs 38-65 µ long. Between Coriolus caperatus and Coriolopsis subglabrescens the differences are minor and intemiediate forms are found. For this reason we believe that they cannot be maintained apart. Coriolopsis nigrocinerea is an extremely close species but will be considered as an independent species because it shows in addition some differential characteristics.

The "caperatus" and "subglabrescens" variations have been reported from Venezuela. According to Bresadola (1916: 227), Polyporus subtropicalis Speg. is another synonym of Coriolus caperatus, however, Lloyd (1915: 3491, Rick (1940b: 293) and Pilat (1942: 499) disagree and claim that it is the same as Phellinus gilvus. Unfortunately, we have not been able to examine its type.