Monographs Details: Polyporus modestus Kunze ex Fr.
Authority: Fidalgo, Oswaldo & Fidalgo, Maria E. 1968. Polyporaceae from Venezuela. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17 (2): 1--34.
Family:Polyporaceae
Description:Species Description - MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS, sporophore: annual, sessile, at times with a short lateral stem-like base, applanate, dimidiate, flabellate, imbricate, rarely effused-reflexed, coriaceous and flexible when fresh and somewhat rigid when dry. pileus: flabelliform to dimidiate, often laterally connate, 1-9.5 cm long, 1.5-7 cm wide and 0.1-0.2(-0.4) cm thick, abhymenial surface: very finely villose tomentose, radially striate and wrinkled, concentrically subsulcate and zonate with some variation in color shade, pinkish-brown to avellaneous, mostly with the color of "caffe au lait," MP-11C5 (Sweetmeat), MP-12C7 (Papyrus) to MP-13J9 (Hazel) at times with fine, light colored overgrowth at the center, near the point of attachment, MP-11B5 (Grain A ) or MP-11C5 (Sweetmeat) or in absence of this overgrowth, the region sometimes darker-colored, MP-14A8 (Marron Glace). M.A.RGIN: mostly entire, at times lobate to, more rarely, crenate, concolorous or paler than the abhymenial surface, MP-12E7 (Cinnamon) with conspicuous sterile band below, light pinkish-brown, MP-12D7 (Bran), 0.5-2.5 mm wide, context: homogeneous, punky-fibrous, tough, 1-2 (-3) mm thick, whitish to light pinkishbrown around MP-11C5 (Sweetmeat); with KOH it darkens a little especially near the surface and at the lower portion of the context, tubes: always in one layer, 0.5-1.5(-3) mm deep, nearly concolorous with the context, poroid surface: whitish, light pinkish-brown to pale cinnamon, MP-9B2 (Polar Bear), MP-11B4 (Beige) to MP-13C7 (Aloma +); pores medium to small, circular, elliptic to subangular, (4-)5-8(-9) per mm, 165-260 X 165-200 µ; dissepiments rather thick and usually entire, at times, thin, slightly toothed, 26-60 (-75) µ thick. MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS, surface: formed by an incipient and loose trichoderm with the skeletal hyphae projecting freely and obliquely from a compact region situated underneath, context: hyphal system trimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, very delicate and very thin-walled, branched, with inconspicuous clamp-connections, 1-1.5(-2.5) µ diam; skeletal hyphae subhyaline to yellowish, thick-walled but with the lumen always distinct, not branched, straight, with no clamps or simple septa, 2-4(-5) µ diam; binding hyphae hyaline to subhyaline, usually solid, much branched, with no clamps or simple septa, 1.5-2 (-2.5) µ diam. dissepiments: hyphal system trimitic. hymenium: hyphal pegs, setae and cystidia not observed; basidia clavate, hyaline, (2-)4-sterigmate, 8.5-17 X 3-5 µ, at times leaving, after collapsing, a honeycomb with alveoles, 3-4 µ diam; basidiospores hyaline, smooth, broad-ellipsoid, non-amyloid, 6-7.5 X 3.5-4 µ.

Distribution and Ecology - Distribution. Polyporus modestus is known from all tropical regions of the world and has been reported from South and Central America, the West Indies Africa, southern Asia, and Australia. Previous reports from Venezuela are: Terr. Amazonas, Mt. Cocui, on dead trunks, R. Spruce, 1853 (K, FH, NY) (Berkeley, 1856: 234, as P. albocervinus); near Caracas, Gollmer (Hennings, 1897: 200, as Polystictus albocervinus); Guayana, Alto Paragua, Cerro Guaiquinima, 500 m alt, F. Cardona 557, Aug 25, 1943, at VEN (Dennis, 1965: 236). Collections from VENEZUELA examined: Bolivar: vicinity Mission Santa Teresita de Kavanayen, savannas, 1300m alt, on fallen log, Maguire & Wurdack 33770, Dec 11, 1952 (NY); Sororopan, 1100m alt, Maguire d Wurdack 33973, Dec I8, 1952 (NY) ; forest, Tirepon-tepui, 1250-1300m alt, on rotten logs, Wurdack 34361, Feb 11, 1953 (NY); Chimanta Massif between upper reaches of Rio Tirica (left hand fork) and Riscobel Ledema Camp, southeast portion of Apacaratepui, 1700-1850m alt, Steyermark 75970, Jun 23, 1953 (NY); Chimanta Massif, along Rio Tirica (Rio Aparuren), just above Techine-meru, 470m alt, on dead log, Steyermark d Wurdack 138, Jan 6, 1955 (NY). Amazonas: Mt. Cocui, on dead trunk, R. Spruce, 1853 (FH, NY); Serrania Paru, Rio Pani, Cafio Asisa, Rio Ventuari, 500 m alt. Cowan d Wurdack 31516, Feb 13, 1951 (NY); Cerro Moriche, Rio Ventuari, 200m alt, on fallen partly buried log, Maguire, Cowan & Wurdack 31026, Jan 16, 1951 (NY); Rio Guainia, 1-3 km E of Maroa, 130 m alt, Wurdack d Adderley 43343, Jul 6, 1959 (NY). Habitat, Host and Economic Importance. Polyporus modestus has been reported on dead wood of angiosperms. A few hosts are known from other areas but none has been reported for Venezuela. Rot unknown.

Discussion:

Figs. 13-14.

Polystictus modestus (Kunze in Fr.) Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 74. 1851.

Microporus modestus (Kunze in Fr.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 496. 1898.

Petaloides modestus (Kunze in Fr.) Torrend, Broteria Bot. 21: 24-25. 1924.

Polyporus monochrous Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. II. 16: 106, n. 82. 1841. Type, Leprieur 536, near Cayenne, French Guiana (teste Bresadola, 1916: 226, and Rick, 1940a: 260).

Polyporus brunneolus Berk., Lond. Jour. Bot. 3: 187-188. 1844. Type, Cuming 2027, from Phihppine Islands (K; merotype, NY).

Polystictus brunneolus (Berk.) Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 75. 1851.

Microporus brunneolus (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Coriolus brunneolus (Berk.) Pat., Essai Taxon. Hymenom. 94. 1900.

Polyporus atypus Lev., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. III. 2: 184. 1844. Type from Java, Indonesia, in Herb. Lugd. Batav. n. SO (PC; merotype, NY).

Polystictus atypus (Lev.) Bres., Hedwigia 51: 314. 1911.

Polystictus atypus (Lev.) Bres. var exaratvs Bres., Hedwigia 53: 53. (1913) 1912.

Conolus atypus (Lev.) Pat., Essai Taxon. Hymenom. 94. 1900.

Trametes atypa (Lev.) G. H. Cunn., Polyp. N. Zeal., Bull. N. Z. Dept. Sci. Industr. Res. 164: 158. 1965.

Polyporus brachypus Lev., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. III. 5: 127. 1846. Type, L'Herminier from Guadaloupe (PC; merotype, NY).

Polystictus brachypus (Lev.) Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 74. 1851.

Microporus brachypus (Lev.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Coriolus brachypus (Lev.) Murr., Bull. Torrey Club 32(12): 646-647. (1905) 1906.

?Polyporus actinobolus Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV. 1: 126-127, n. 347, 1856. Type, Leprieur 866, from French Guiana (teste Murrill, 1907b: 23, as a possible synonym of Coriolus leiodermus).

?Polystictus actinobolus (Mont.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 81. 1886.

?Microporus actinobolus (Mont.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

?Coriolus actinobolus (Mont.) Pat. in Duss, Enum. Meth. Champ. Guadal. Martin. 32. 1903.

Polyporus leiodermus Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV. 1: 134, n. 385. 1856. Type, Leprieur 855, from French Guiana (PC, NY).

Polystictus leiodermus (Mont.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 84. 1886.

Microporus leiodermus (Mont.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 496. 1898 (variant spelling: M. leiodermis).

Conolus leiodermus (Mont.) Murr., N. Am. Fl. 9(1): 23. 1907.

Polyporus albocervinus Berk., Jour. Bot. & Kew Misc. 8: 234. 1856. Type, Spruce 22, from Panure, Amazonas State, Brazil (K; isotypes, FH, NY).

Polystictus albocervinus (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 79. 1886; P. Henn., Hedwigia 36: 200. 1897.

Microporus albocervinus (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 494. 1898.

Coriolus albocervinus (Berk.) Pat., Essai Taxon. Hymenom. 94. 1900; Fidalgo, Acta. Biol. Venez. (in press).

Petaloides albocervinus (Berk.) Torrend, Broteria Bot. 21: 25. 1924.

Polyporus cervinonitens Schw. in Berk. & Curt., Jour. Acad. Phila. II. 3(3): 224. 1856. Type, Hering, from Suriname. (teste Rick, 1940a: 260).

Polystictus cervinonitens (Schw.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 79. 1886.

Microporus cervinonitens (Schw.), Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Coriolus cerviuonitens (Schw.) Pat., Essai Taxon. Hymenom. 94. 1900.

Polyporus puellaris Kalchbr., Rev. Mycol. 4: 96, tab. XXIX, fig. 2. 1882. Type, J. Remy, island of the Pacific Ocean (teste Bresadola, 1916: 226).

Polystictus puellaris (Kalchbr.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 6: 257. 1888.

Microporus pudhiris (Kalchbr.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 497. 1898.

Polystictus paiishii Berk, in Cooke, Grevillea 15(74): 51. 1886. Type from Moulmein, Burma (teste Rick, 1940a: 260).

Microporus parishii (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 496. 1898.

Polyporus pauperculus Speg., Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. Cordoba 11: 57, n. 101. 1889. Type, Puiggari 1032, Jun 1881, from Apiahy, Sao Paulo State, Brazil (teste Rick, 1940a: 260).

Coriolus curranii Murr., Bull. Torrey Club 35(8): 395. 1908. Type, Curran & Merritt, Oct 23, 1907, from Mt. Maquiling, Laguna Prov., Luzon I., Philippine Is., ex-F.B. 8965 (NY).

Polystictus curranii (Murr.) Sacc. ct Trott. in Sacc, Syll. Fung. 21: 319. 1912.

Type. Coll. Weigelt, at UPS.

Type Locality. Suriname (Dutch Guiana).

Basionym. Polyporus modestus Kunze in Fr., 1830.

Discussion. Polyporus modestus does not belong in Polyporus as we characterize the genus. We use the original name in order to avoid a possible superfluous new combination, and until we find the best place for it, which without doubt should be in one of the trametoid genera. Several other species have been considered as identical to this species. Polyporus murinus Lev. was said by Fries (1851: 75) and Bresadola (1916: 226) to be the same as P. brunneolus and was considered by Rick (1940a: 260) to be P. modestus. However, we think P. murinus should be placed near P. menziesii Berk, and P. meleagris Berk. Polyporus rubidus Berk, also was considered to be a synomym of P modestus by Overholts (1953: 374) and of Trametes atypa by Cunningham (1965: 158), one of the synonyms of P modestus. Although closely related, we believe that P. rubidus really belongs to a group which includes Trametes feei (Fr.) Pat. and T. cupreorosea (Berk.) Lloyd. More or less recently collected specimens of this group show a well defined lilac shade. In old specimens, kept in a herbarium for many years, this color disappears and then the color is similar to that shown by P. modestus. In the American tropics the closest relatives of P. modestus would probably be T. cupreorosea (Berk.) Lloyd and its allies. Polustictus didrichsenii Fr. was considered by Murrill (1906: 646-647) to be Polyporus modestus with large pores but Murrill did not indicate how large. The pores show slight variation in size with the type of P. albocervinus at one extreme with small pores, 7-8 (-9) per mm and the type of P. leiodermus at the other extreme with (2-) 3 pores per mm. We did not locate the type of P. didrichsenii, and thus do not know its position in this line of variation. Polyporus modestus shows a great variation in form of the sporophores. Alost typical are the bracket and imbricate sporophores which are laterally and broadly attached to the substrate. At times the base narrows and then the pileus appears petaloid with a stem-like base as in the types of P leiodermus and Coriolus curranii. When the fungus grows on fallen trunks, perpendicular to the top surface of the host, the sporophores develop beautiful rosettelike clusters. We have examined the types of P brunneolus, P. brachypus, P. albocervinus, P. leiodermus and of C. curranii and found them to be conspecific. The isotype of P leiodermus at NY shows pores somewhat larger (2-) 3 per mm or 340-50 µ diam; the hyphae have exactly the same variation found in P modestus; basidia are 7.5-15 X 3-4 µ. The holotype of C. curranii differs by having a somewhat shiny surface. Microscopically the explanation for this is the disappearance of the trichoderm, the surface thus represented by the dense portion of the context, 7.5-15 µ thick, where the skeletal hyphae run periclinally and are more or less cemented together. The dense portion of the context is easily detected using KOH or Melzer's reagent; it becomes visible as a dark line. The pores are 95-300 X 90-115 µ diam and the dissepiments are 30-54 µ thick. Both, the isotype of P. leiodermus and the holotype of C. curranii have a lateral stem-like base. Except for the differences indicated above they are similar to P. modestus in all other respects. In P. modestus, some variation of color has been also noticed. The American collections are usually pale cinnamon, as are also the forms called P. atypus in southeastern Asia. However, some darker forms called P brumieolus occur in southeastern Asia. Microscopically such variants do not show any significant difference from the regular structure of P. modestus except for the color of the skeletal hyphae walls which are just a little darker. A fragment of a Weigelt collection at NY from Suriname labelled P. modestus does not belong to the P. modestus group. According to Lloyd (1900: 56) : "Fries described Polyporus modestus as named by Kunze in Weigel's exsiccatae, from Suriname. The type is therefore the one in Fries' herbarium at Uppsala. The specimen in Weigel's exsiccatae at Kew is not the same as the one at Uppsala . Polyporus modestus of Fries was Polyporus albocervinus of Berkeley." This information seems to be entirely true since the "merotype" at NY came from K. However, the concept of P. modestus widely found in herbaria seems to agree with Fries' tvpe and the established concept is conspecific with P. albocervinus. Most collections of P modestus are entirely sterile with hymenium absent. Generative hyphae and binding hyphae are frequently found inside the tubes, obliterating the lumen. Scattered basidia were found in just two of the Venezuelan collections (Maguire et al 31026, Maguire & Wurdack 33770) but no hymenial layer was formed and only the first collection was fertile. In the collection, Wurdack & Adderley 43343. the basidia had collapsed, leaving in some tubes a honeycombed structure seen in this species for the first time.