Monographs Details: Polyporus gallinaceus Berk. & Cooke
Authority: Fidalgo, Oswaldo & Fidalgo, Maria E. 1968. Polyporaceae from Venezuela. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17 (2): 1--34.
Family:Polyporaceae
Description:Species Description - MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS, sporophore: annual, very thin, laterally stipitate, much variable, sometimes solitary but mostly with concrescent pilei and free stipes, often also with the stipes joined only by the basal portion with free pilei. stipe: distinct or attenuated to a stem-like base, 0.4-4.5 cm long, rigid, sometimes velvety, often silky, cylindric to slightly flattened, 0.2-0.4 cm thick, always with an orbicular base, yellowi.sh-cream to ochraceous-brown, MP-11E5 (Raffia) to MP-12H6 (Roe), pileus: flabelhform, petaloid or spathulate, solitary or connate with other pilei, sometimes solitary but appearing separated into small lobes, applanate when fresh, inflexed or deflexed when dry, soft coriaceous when fresh, becoming rigid and brittle when dry, 1-5 cm long, 1-6 cm wide and 0.05-0.1 cm thick, abhymenial surface: initially flnely tomentose becoming glabrescent, silky zonate and radially striate, ochraceous, MP-11G5, between Raffia and Chamois, to hght brown, MP-13I8 (Aztec), alternating with many grayish zones, MP-15C4 (Pampas), margin: very thin, papyraceous, rigid and acute, lobate to crenate, inflexed to applanate when dry, usually much darker than the abhymenial surface, dark reddish brown, ]MP-15A12 (Burnt Umber) to MP-8H5 (Chippendale), context: homogeneous, coriaceous, very thin, less than 1 mm thick, white, not darkening permanently with KOH. tubes: always in one layer, very short, usually less than 0.5 m m long, cream, MP-10C3 (Vanilla), MP-11C6 (Dorado) or MP-13D6 (Cracker), with a sterile marginal band up to 4 mm broad; pores small to minute, not visible to the unaided eye, subcircular to elongated, (9-) 10-12 (-14) per mm, 60-90 X 50-75 fi; dissepiments entire, thin, acute, 25-60 µ thick. MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS, pilear surface: at the growing margin surface an indistinct cutis formed by the denser arrangement of the outer hyphae of the context, mostly with periclinal orientation; sometimes these hyphae embedded in a resinous orange matter, not soluble in lactophenol but soluble in KOH and then the cutis distinctly observed; at the margin the abhymenial surface with a tomentose aspect due to a loose trichoderm, 20-180 µ thick, formed by an outgrowth of anticlinal and interwoven generative hyphae over the cutis; these anticlinal hyphae not showing any encrustation by resinous matter, context: hyphal system monomitic; generative hyphae hyaline, with clamp-connections, frequently with multiple clamps, moderately branched, (2.5-) 3-4.5 (-5) µ thick, with a broad lumen and walls thickened iol p thick; these hyphae, near the abhymenial surface, showing a predominant periclinal orientation and little by little becoming less oriented down to the dissepiments, not showing definite orientation, dissepiments: formed by thinner generative hyphae, 1.5-2 (-3) µ diam, mostly with distinct lumen and walls 0.5-1 µ thick, hymenium: setae, cystidia and hyphal pegs not seen; basidia subclavate, hyaline, 4-sterigmate, 6-8 X 3.5-5 µ; basidiospores hyaline, subglobose, uniguttulate, slightly apiculate, non-amyloid, 3-3.5(-4) x 2-2.5 (-3)µ.

Distribution and Ecology - Distribution. Polyporus gallinaceus has been recorded from Brazil (Para State) by Berkeley ct Cooke (1877: 379), by Berkeley ( 1856: 196, as P. mutabilis) from Amazonas State and from British Guiana by Wakefield (1934: 246-247). We have seen also quite uniform cohections from Brazil (Amazonas, Para and Pernambuco), British Guiana (Bartica), Dutch Guiana (Nassau Mountains, alt 400-550m) and Colombia (JMagdalena and Meta). From VENEZUELA were seen the following collections, which seem to be the first records of this species in this country: Amazonas: forest along Casiquiare River, between Siapa and Paciba rivers, 120 m alt, Maguire & Wurdack 35731, Apr 19, 1953 (NY); Ventuari River, Riverine forest about 3 km below Las Carmelitas, 200m alt, Cowan & Wurdack 31584, Feb 20,1951 (NY). Habitat, Hosts and Economic Importance. Rot unknown. No hosts listed, so far. It has been found on dead and rotten logs.

Discussion:

Figs. 17-18.

Polystictus gallinaceus (Berk. *.t Cooke) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 78. 1886.

Microporus gallinaceus (Berk. & Cooke) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 498. 1898.

Type. Holotype, coll. J. W H. Trail, 1874, at K; merotype, NY.

Type Locality. Obidos, Para State, Brazil.

Basionym. Polyporus gallinaceus Berk. & Cooke, 1877.

Discussion. The Venezuelan collections were compared directly with a good and fertile merotype of Polyporus gallinaceus at NY and were found to be conspecific. According to Lloyd (1912: 146) and Torrend (1924: 30-31) an older name for this species is P. mutabilis Berk, ct Curt., 1853. AVakefield (1934: 246-247) who apparently consulted the types, considered P. gallinaceus and P mutabilis as distinct species, separating them by the morphology of the sporophores and shape and size of the basidiospores. We have not been able to examine the type of P mutabilis. Some additional North American collections at NY were named P. mutabilis. We compared these with the South American collections of P. gallinaceus. The collections of P mutabilis resemble the South American ones but in general are comparatively larger and thicker, azonate or faintly zonate, with larger pores, (5-) 6-8 per mm and with slightly larger, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores; the hyphal system and generative hyphae are exactly the same, although in some North American collections of P. mutabilis, the latter have a somewhat larger diameter. We noticed that the pore diameter of other South American collections of P. gallinaceus (Colombia, Brazil and British Guiana) were uniformly very small, ranging from 9-12 (-16) per mm and matched the Venezuelan collections; all North American collections of P mutabilis (Florida, Louisiana and Delaware) have (5-)6-7(-8) pores per mm; a few collections of P. mutabilis from Mexico (Motzorongo), British Honduras, Cuba and Puerto Rico also have pores (6-)7-8 per mm; only one intermediate collection (Cuba) showed a thin faintly zonate pileus and small pores, 10 per mm. For the moment we believe it is better to refer the Venezuelan collection to P. gallinaceus since the type of P. mutabilis was not available for study. We are referring the species to the genus Polyporus because it is the basionym; the hyphal system indicates that this species is not congeneric with the true species of Polyporus "sensu stricto."