Monographs Details: Phellinus gilvus (Schwein.:Fr.) Pat.
Authority: Fidalgo, Oswaldo & Fidalgo, Maria E. 1968. Polyporaceae from Venezuela. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 17 (2): 1--34.
Family:Hymenochaetaceae
Description:Species Description - MACROSCOPIC Characters. sporophore: sessile, effused-reflexed, solitary or imbricate, more rarely, with a short stem-like base or entirely resupinate; pileus dimidiate, thin to thick, 1-7 (-10) cm long, 2-15 cm wide and 0.2-1 (-2.5) cm thick, frequently with nodules near the base, abhymenial surface: velutinate, concentrically and narrowly zonate and sulcate or strigose-fibrillose with radial furrows, ochraceous or rusty-yellow becoming glabrous, horny encrusted, rustybrown to somewhat blackish when old, most times near ]MP-14I12 (Russet Br. +). margin: entire, acute to obtuse, with a marked sterile zone below up to 3 mm thick, at times a little lighter, MP-12K7 (Samovar), context: fibrous, corky, at times harder, firm, 0.1-0.8 (-2) cm thick, yellowish-brown, varying from MP-13L9 (Chipmunk) to MP-14L12 (Sudan Br.); no black lines, but at times with a black crust at the surface, 10-50(-150) µ thick; with KOH the trama turns black, tubes: mostly in one layer, more rarely in 2-5 indistinct layers, 1-5 mm long, darker than the context, AIP-15E10 (Olive Wood), poroid surface: usually with different shades of dark brown around ]MP-8H9 (Rembrandt), at times lighter, with a greenish shade MP-13L7 (Tinsel) ; pores small to minute, regular, circular, (6-)7-9(-10) per mm, 65-85(-135) µ diam; dissepiments entire, thin, acute, 19-45 (-62) µ thick. MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS. surface: formed by a trichoderm with generative and skeletal hyphae subanticlinally oriented and grouped in conical patches with the tips entirely free; when the surface becomes encrusted the hyphae are more densely arranged, anticlinal, with the tips of generative hyphae hyaline, about 10 p long from the end and staining by lactophenol + cotton blue and then, such outgrowth becomes evident as a blue layer over the encrusted portion. context: hyphal system dimitic; generative hyphae hyaline to yellow, branched, thin-walled to somewhat thickened, with many simple septa. 1-2 (-4) µ diam in growing zones, mostly collapsed in herbarium specimens; skeletal hyphae bright brownish-yellow, not branched, straight to tortuous, thick-walled to solid, with no septa or false simple septa, 2-3.5(-6) µ diam. hymenium: hyphal pegs and cystidia not seen; hymenial setae yellowish-brown to ferruginous, conical,subulate or deltoid, 14.5-24.5(-44) X 2.5-5(-7) µ diam, tips acute, rarely obtuse, straight, projecting up to 20 µ beyond the basidia; basidia honeycombed, clavate when young, short, hyaline, 4-sterigmate, 7-12.5 X 4-5 µ; basidiospores hyaline, smooth, oblong-ellipsoid, non-amyloid, 3-4.5 X 2.5-3.5 µ.

Distribution and Ecology - Distribution. Phellinus gilvus is one of the most common species, and it is known from almost all tropical areas of the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia, being more rare in Europe. It is also found in temperate zones of both hemispheres although not so frequent as in the tropics. Habitat, Host and Economic Importance. It has been reported on living trees, but it is mostly found on dead wood of angiosperms, producing white rot. From Venezuela it has been reported on LEGUMINOSAE: "dividive" = Libidibia coriaria (Jacq.) Schltdl. and on EUPHORBIACEAE: "lechero" = Euphorbia sp. or Sapium sp. (Patouillard & Heim, 1928: 270).

Discussion:

Figs. 5-10.

Boletus gilvus Schw., Schr. Naturf. Ges. 1: 96, n. 44 (897). 1822.

Polyporus gihnis (Schw.) Fr., Elench. Fung. 1: 104. 1828; Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 28(1-2): 32. 1930.

Polyporus gilvus (Schw.) Fr. var scabrorugosus Berk., Ann. N^at. Hist. 3(19): 389-390. 1839. Type from New Orleans. Louisiana, U. S. A.

Polyporus gilvus (Schw.) Fr. var scruposus (Fr.) P. Henn., Bot. Jahrb. 17(5): 495. 1893.

Polyporus gilvus (Schw.) Fr. var congregatus Bomm. & Rouss. in Durand & Pittier, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 35(1): 152. 1896. Type, Pittier from Costa Rica.

Polyporus gilvus (Schw.) Fr. var licnoides (Mont.) Lloj'd in Corner, Brit. Mycol. Soc. Trans. 17(1-2): 79. 1932.

Polyporus gilvus (Schw.) Fr. var suhlicnoides Rick, Broteria Ci. Nat. 4: 91. 1935. Type from Brazil.

Polyponis gilvus (Schw.) Fr. f africana Sacc. & Berl. in Roum., Rev. Mycol. 11(44): 194, n. 5007. 1889. Type from St. Thomas IL, Afr. Occ.

Polyporus gilvus (Schw.) Fr. f gilvoides Mitter & Tandon, Jour. Indian Bot. Soc. 17(2-3): 181. 1938.

Polyporus gilvus (Schw.) Fr. f licnoides (Mont.) Bose, Ann. Mycol. 33(3-4): 201. 1935.

Mucronoporus gilvus (Schw.) Ell. & Ev., Jour. Mycol. 5(1): 28. 1889.

Chaetoporus gilvus (Schw.) Romell, K. Svensk. VetenskAkad. Handl. III. 26(16): 14-15. 1901.

Hapalopilus gilvus (Schw.) Murr., Bull. Torrey Club 31(8): 418-419. 1904.

Fomes gilvus (Schw.) Lloyd. Mycol. Writ. 4(Lett. 42): 6. 1912; Dennis, Kew Bull. 19(2): 233. 1965.

Boletus impuber [Sow., Engl. Fung., pl. 195. 1799] (teste Cooke, 1886: 56 and Saccardo. 1888: 121).

Polyporus pruinatus Klotzsch, Linnaea 8(4): 486. 1833. Type, Telfair from Mauritius I. (teste Murrill, 1904: 418).

Polystictus pruinatus (Klotzsch) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 82. 1886.

Microporus pruinatus (Klotzsch) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 497. 1898.

Polyporus scruposus Fr., Epicr. Syst. Alycol. 473. 1838. Type from North America (teste Lloyd, 1915: 347, as a form of P. gilvus, and Pilat, 1942: 499).

Chaetoporus scruposus (Fr.) Romell, K. Svensk. VetenskAkad. Handl. III. 26(16): 16-17. 1901.

Phellinus scruposus (Fr.) Pat. in Duss, Enum. Meth. Champ. Guadel. Martin. 32. 1903.

Fomes scruposus (Fr.) G. H. Cunn., Bull. N. Z. Dept. Sci. Industr. Res. 79: 11-12. 1948.

Polyporus calvescens Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist. 3(19): 390. 1839. Type from Xew Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. (teste Fries, 1851: 54 and Murrill, 1908: S1).

Fomes calvescens (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(69): 20. 1885.

Microporus calvescens (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Scindalma calvescens (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 518. 1898.

Polyporus cupreus Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist. 3(19): 393. 1839, non Polyporus cupreus Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 64. 1851. Type, Wight from East Indies (teste Bresadola, 1916: 224 and Pilat, 1942: 498).

Polystictus cupreus (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 85. 1886.

Microporus cupreus (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 496. 1898.

Polyporus licnoides Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. II. 13: 204. 1840; Pat. & Gaill., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 4(1): 33. 1888; Overh. in Chardon & Toro, Mycol. Expl. Venezuela 311. 1934. Type, Leprieur 685, from French Guiana (teste Lloyd, 1915: 349, as a form of P. gilvus, and Pilat, 1942: 498).

Polystictus licnoides (Mont.) Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 92. 1851; Dennis, Kew Bull. 19(2): 236. 1965.

Mucronoporus licnoides (Mont.) Ell. & Ev., Jour. Mycol. 5(1): 29. 1889.

Microporus licnoides (Mont.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 496. 1898 (variant spelling: M. licnodes).

Phellinus licnoides (Mont.) Pat., Essai Taxon. Hymenom. 97. 1900; Pat. & Heim, Ann. Crypt. Exot. 1(3): 270. 1928; Fidalgo, Acta Biol. Venez. (in press).

Chaetoporus licnoides (Mont.) Romell, K. Svensk. VetenskAkad. Handl. III. 26(16): 15-16. 1901.

Hapalopilus licnoides (Mont.) Murr., Bull. Torrey Club 31(8): 417. 1904.

Fomes licnoides (Mont.) Parks, Univ. Cahf. Publ. Bot. 12: 57. 1926.

Polyporus omalopilus Mont, in de la Sagra, Hist. Phys. Polit. Nat. Cuba, Pl. Cell., 423. 1842. Type from Cuba (teste Murrill, 1904: 418, 1908: 81, Lloyd, 1915: 347, and Bresadola, 1916:225).

Fomes omalopilus (Mont, in de la Sagra) Cooke, Grevillea 14(69): 21. 1886.

Scindalma omalopilum (Mont, in de la Sagra) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 518. 1898 (variant spelling: S. homalopilum).

Polyporus inamoenus Mont., Ann. Sci. X^at. Bot. II. 18: 22. 1842. Type. Perrottet, Neelgherrie, India (teste Lloyd, 1915: 347, 348, as a form of P. gilvus. Rick, 1940b: 294, 1960: 226, as a variety of P. gilvus, and Pilat, 1942: 498).

Fomes inamoenus (Mont.) Cooke. Grevillea 14 (69): 19. 1885.

Scindalma inamoenum (Mont.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen Pl. 3(3): 518. 1898 (the species is attributed to Fries, in error).

Polyporus isidioides Berk., Lond. Jour. Bot. 2: 515. 1843 (teste Cooke, 1886: 56, Murrill, 1904: 418, Lloyd, 1915: 347, and Rick, 1940b: 293).

Mucronoporus isidioides (Berk.) Ell. & Ev., Jour. Mycol. 5(1): 29. 1889.

Polyporus callimorphus Lev.. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. III. 5: 133. 1846. Type. Perville, from Madagascar, at P (teste Lloyd, 1915: 349, Rick, 1940b: 293, and Pilat, 1942: 499).

Polystictus callimorphus (Lev.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 85. 1886.

Microporus callimorphus (Lev.) Kuntze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Polyporus spurcus Lev.. Ann. Sci. X^at. Bot. III. 5: 135. 1846. Type from Guadeloupe, at P. (teste Murrill, 1908: 81, Lloyd, 1915: 348, as a form of P. gilvus, and Rick, 1940b: 294, 1960: 226, as a varietv of P. gilvus).

Polystictus spurcus (Lev.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 86. 1886.

Microporus spurcus (Lev.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3); 397. 1898.

Polyporus discipes Berk., Lond. Jour. Bot. 6: 499. 1847. Type from Ceylon (teste Murrill, 1907a: 470).

Polystictus discipes (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 79. 1886.

Microporus discipes (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 496. 1898.

Polyporus crocatus Kl. in Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 54. 1851, pr. p. - nomen nudum, non P. crocatus Fr., Epicr. Syst. Mycol. 477. 1838 (teste Fries, 1851: 54).

Polyporus endozonus Fr., Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 54. 1851. Type from St. John I. (teste Murrill, 1908: 81, Lloyd, 1915: 347, and Rick, 1940b: 293).

Fomes endozonus (Fr.) G. H. Cunn., Bull. N. Z. Dept. Sci. Industr. 79: 13-14. 1948.

Polyporus cameofulvus Berk, in Fr., X'^ova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. III. 1: 68. 1851. Type. from Guiana (teste Murrill, 1904: 418, 1908: 81, Lloyd. 1915: 347, as a form of P. gilvus, and Rick, 1940b: 294, 1960: 226, as a variety of P. gilvus).

Polyporus holosclerus Berk.. Jour. Bot. & Kew Misc. 8: 200. 1856. Type from Panure, Amazonas, Brazil (teste Murrill, 1904: 418, Lloyd, 1915: 347, Bresadola, 1916: 225 and Pilat, 1942: 498).

Scindalma holosclerum (Berk.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 518. 1898.

Polyporus ilicincola Berk. & Curt., Grevillea 1(4): 52. 1872. Type, Peters, from Alabama, U.S.A. (teste Lloyd, 1915: 348, as a form of P. gilvus, Bresadola, 1916: 225, and Pilat, 1942: 498).

Polystictus ilicincola (Berk. & Curt.) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 80. 1886.

Microporus ilicincola (Berk. & Curt.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 496. 1898.

Polyporus caesiellus Ces., Atti R. Accad. Sci. Fis. Mat. 8(3): 6. 1879. Type from Sarawak, Borneo (teste Lloyd, 1915: 347, and Rick, 1940b: 293).

Polystictus caesiellus (Ces.) Cooke, Grevillea 15(74): 51. 1886.

Microporus caesiellus (Ces.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Polyporus breviporus Cooke, Grevillea 12(61): 17. 1883. Type from Australia (teste Murrill, 1908: 81, Lloyd, 1915: 347, and Rick, 1940b: 293).

Polystictus breviporus (Cooke) Cooke, Grevillea 14(71): 87. 1886.

Microporus breviporus (Cooke) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 495. 1898.

Polyporus balansae Speg., Anal. Soc. Ci. Argent. 17: 43. 1884. Type, B. balansa, from Guarapi, Paraguay (teste Lloyd, 1915: 347, Bresadola, 1916: 223, Rick, 1940b: 293, and Pilat, 1942: 498).

Polystictus balansae (Speg.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 6: 277-278. 1888.

Mucronoporus balansae (Speg.) Ell. & Ev., Jour. Mycol. 5(1): 29. 1889.

Polyporus subtropicalis Speg., Anal. Soc. Ci. Argent. 17: 45, n. 46. 1884. Type, B. Balansa 3400, Apr 1879, from Guarapi, Paraguay (teste Lloyd, 1915: 349, Rick, 1940b: 293, and Pilat, 1942: 499).

Polystictus subtropicalis (Speg.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 6: 272. 1888.

?Microporus subtropicalis (Speg.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 497. 1898.

Polystictus purpureofuscus Cooke, Grevillea 15(73): 24. 1886. Type, Ravenel 3034, from South Carolina, U.S.A. (teste Murrill, 1904: 418, 1908: 81, Lloyd, 1915: 347, and Rick, 1940b: 293).

Microporus purpureofuscus (Cooke) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 497. 1898.

Placodes fucatus Quel., Ass. Fr. 4. 1886. Type at UPS (teste Llo5^d, 1915: 347, Rick, 1940b: 293, and Pilat, 1942: 498).

Fomes fucatus (Quel.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 9: 180. 1891.

Polyporus fucatus (Quel.) Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 4(Syn sect Apus gen Polyporus): 379. 1915.

Scindalma fucatum (Quel.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 518. 1898.

Polyporus bambusinus Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 7: 101-103. 1891. Type, R. P. Bon, from Hanoi, North Vietnam (teste Lloyd, 1915: 347, 349, and Rick, 1940b: 294, 1960: 227, as a variety of P. gilvus).

Fomes bambusinus (Pat.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. 11: 88. 1895.

Polyporus pseudoradiatus Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 11: 207. 1895. Type, G. de Lagerheim, from San Jorge, Ecuador (teste Lloj'd, 1915: 384, as a form of P. gilvus, and Rick, 1960: 226, as a variety).

Polyporus aureomarginatus P. Henn., Bot. Jahrb. 22: 72. 1895. Type from Cameroon (teste Murrill, 1908: 81, Bresadola, 1916: 223, and Rick, 1960: 227, as a variety of P. gilvus).

Polystictus subglaber Ell. & Macbr., Iowa Univ. Bull. Nat. Hist. 3(3): 92. 1896. Type, C. L. Smith from Nicaragua (teste Murrill, 1904: 417, 1908: 81).

Polyporus gilvoides P. Henn., Hedwigia 36(4): 201. 1897. Type, E. Ule 760, from Santa Catarina, Brazil (teste Lloyd, 1915: 349, as a form of P. gilvus, and Rick, 1940b: 294, 1960: 226, as a variety).

Phellinus stabulorum Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 23(2): 74. 1907. Type comm. M. Eberhardt, from Moi de Dangkia, Vietnam (teste Lloyd, 1915: 348). Fomes stabulorum (Pat.) Sacc & Trott. in Sacc, Syll. Fung. 21: 286. 1912.

Polyporus hookerii Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 4(Syn sect Aptis gen Polyporus): 348, fig. 688. 1915. Type, Hooker, from India, K (teste Lloyd, 1915: 348, as a form of P. scruposus, and Rick, 1940b: 294, 1960: 226, as a variety of P. gilvus).

Polyporus marcuccianus Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 4(Syn sect Apus gen Polyporus): 348. 1915. Type comm. Marcucci 70, from southern Italy or one of the Mediterranean islands Lloyd 21898, BPI (teste Lloyd, 1915: 348, as a form of P. gilvus. and Rick, 1940b: 294, as a variety).

Polyporus intactilis Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 6(Mycol. Not. 61): 887, pl. ISO, fig. 1637. 1919. Type, T. Hunter 187, 1960: 227, as a variety forfo Pm. Wg.il vAufsr)i.c a, Lloyd 22041, BPI (teste Rick, 1940b: 295, as a variety).

Polyporus intactilis Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 6(Mycol. Not. 61): 887, pl. 130, fig. 1537, 1919. Type, T. Hunter 187, from W. africa, Lloyd 22041, BPI (teste Rick, 1940b: 295, 1960: 227, as a variety pf P. gilvus).

Polyporus biogilvus Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 6(Mycol. Not. 62): 943. pl. 1744. 1920. Type, J. Gossweiler 62, from Angola, Portuguese W. Africa, Lloyd 3S206, BPI (teste Rick, 1940b: 294, 1960: 226, as a variety of P. gilvus).

Polyporus pseudogilvus Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 6(Mycol. X'ot. 62): 940-941. 1920. Type. Weir, from Cuba, Lloyd 21935, BPI (teste Lloyd, 1920: 941, as a form of P gilvus, and Pilat. 1942: 499).

Polyporus rigidus Llo3'd, Mycol. Writ. 7(Mycol. Not. 73) : 1319. 1924, nomen nudum, non Polyporus rigidus Lev.

Polyporus gilvorigidus Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 7(Mycol. Xot. 74): 1334. 1925. Type, comm. H. K. Dalrymple, from Dunedin, Xew Zealand, Lloyd 15196, BPI (teste Rick, 1940b: 295 and Pilat, 1942: 499).

Erroneous Interpretations

Polyporus fulvus auct. non Scop., comm. Marcucci 70, from southern Italy or one of the Mediterranean islands (teste Lloyd, 1915: 348-349; see P marcuccianus Lloyd in the synonymj").

Fomes torulosus auct. non (Pers.) Lloyd: Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 3(Mycol. Not. 35): 470. 1910 (teste Lowe, 1954: 496, a perennial form of Polyporus licnoides Mont.).

Type. Not located.

Type Locality. North Carolina, U. S. A.

Basionym. Boletus gilvus Schw., 1822.

Discussion. Phellinus gilvus is a cosmopohtan species, extremely variable in shape and for this reason the specimens when identified are many times referred to as belonging to the Phellinus gilvus complex. In this complex three major groups of specimens can be recognized: (1) specimens with hard and rigid pileus up to 2.5 cm thick; abhymenial surface often concolorous, around MP-14I12 (Russet Br. +), azonate, without radial furrows and nearly glabrous, at times lighter at the margin (Figs. 5-6) ; one or more layers of tubes present; poroid surface often with a greenish-yellow shade around MP-13L7 (Tinsel) to much darker, MP-14F9 (Butterscotch + ). It seems that the original collection from North Carolina no longer exists. However, the feature of this first group corresponds to the general idea established for the typical P gilvus as represented in herbaria by hundreds of specimens. This concept agrees also with authentic material preserved in the Schweinitz herbarium at P H . With this specimen is written "Florin" which is a city of Pennsylvania. On the label is written also "Salem—Beth." Salem is a city of South Carolina and Beth, an abbreviation for Bethlehem, another city of Pennsylvania. The numbers, 398-79, written on the label, also do not agree with the numbers found in the original description (Schweinitz, 1822: 96) but they do agree with the numbers given to Polyporus gilvus in a later publication (Schweinitz, 1832: 157) where the author points out: "frequens etiam Pennsylvania." Since the original collection apparently no longer exists and this specimen entirely agrees with the generalized concept of P. gilvus we suggest that it be selected as the neotype; (2) specimens with hard corky and rigid to slightly flexible pileus up to 1 cm thick; abhymenial surface concolorous or not, velutinate, clearly concentrically and narrowly zonate and sulcate (Figs. 9-10), becoming paler with age, a grayish shade, MP-12D6 (Honeysuckle) and often showing at the middle portion of the surface zones with a purplish-brown shade, MP-7J9 (Castilian Brown) ; mostly one layer of tubes present; poroid surface often with a grayish shade, near MP-15A7 (Soapstone). Representative of this group is a specimen of Polyporus licnoides from Cuba, n. 74, labelled at NY as being the type of this species; it appears that Murrill (1908: 81) always believed that Cuba was its type locality, however, the original description was based on a specimen from French Guiana, Leprieur 685 which we were not able to locate. The material at NY is a very nice specimen and agrees entirely with the concept established for Phellinus licnoides; (3) specimens with hard corky and rigid but more often flexible pileus up to 0.5 cm thick; abhymenial surface concolorous, strigosefibrillose with radial furrows, ochraceous to rusty-brown, MP-12K7 (Samovar) to MP-14H12 (Bombay), becoming glabrous with age (Figs. 7-8); margin at times lighter, MP-11J6 (Honeysweet) ; tubes always found by us in one layer; poroid surface rusty-brown. These characters define well the concept of Phellinus scruposus.

All three groups are well represented in collections from Venezuela. The occurrence of many intermediate forms caused doubt as to the rank under which such groups should be treated. Some mycologists consider them as distinct species, some consider them as varieties or as forms of Phellinus gilvus. The variation is also responsible for the extensive list of synonyms and the multitude of proposed forms and varieties. Lloyd (1915: 347-349) considered 10 species as forms of P. gilvus but, fortunately, no new combinations were proposed. Rick (1940b: 294) considered 17 species as varieties of P gilvus but also did not propose new combinations. In Rick's posthumous work (Rick, 1960: 226-227) 19 new combinations were proposed as varieties, but they are invalid since no basionyms were indicated.

The nearest relative of Phellinus gilvus is P senex (Nees & Mont.) Imaz., a species collected originally by Bertero from Juan Fernandez Is. Phellinus senex is also cosmopolitan. In the New ^^'orld it can be very easily distinguished from P. gilvus. In southeastern Asia, however, it is a problem to separate some forms of P. senex from the concentrically zonate group of P gilvus which represents the concept of P. licnoides. In southeastern Asia they merge together. In the whole variation of P. senex, pores are broad-elliptic, somewhat angular to subcircular, (5-) 6-7 (-8) per m m and (85-) 100-150 (-172) p diam while in P. gilvus the pores are circular (6-) 7-9 (-10) per mm and 65-85 (-135) p diam. In the New World P. senex shows 5-6 pores per m m and P. gilvus, 8-10 per mm. Fendler's collections n. 70-71 should be referred to the first group of P. gilvus instead of P senex as they are labeled in herbaria.