Mielichhoferia paradoxa Herz., Krypt. Forsch. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 4: 283. 1919. Syntypes: GREECE. "An sonigen gneissfelsen der Lesicia circa 1000 m, end Mai mit beinahe reifen sporogonen, [Herzog] No. 609 (JE!); An ebensolchen Felsen im Gradesnicatal circa 750 m, gleichfalls fertile, [Herzog] No. 608 (je!); An Felsen im Zadukatal in steril Raschen, circa 700 m, [Herzog] No. 649" (JE!).
This species is similar to Brachymenium notarisii in having terminal inflorescences, ovatelanceolate leaves, shortly and stoutly excurrent yellow or golden costae, erect, red capsules and smooth exostome teeth that are reddish to brown below and hyaline above. However, B. paradoxum is much more slender, with concave leaves of softer texture, and has shorter, poorly developed exostome teeth. The endostome of B. paradoxum is present, but consists of a basal m e m brane only. An annotation accompanying the syntypes in Jena indicates that Herzog first considered B. paradoxum to be a species of Anomobryum. Brothems (1924) stated that he had not seen any material of this species when he included it in Mielichhoferia for his worldwide treatment of mosses.
An isotype of Brachymenium madagassum Hampe in NY diflfers from B. paradoxum as follows: plants softer, leaves slightly more spreading and somewhat twisted when dry, more concave, with thinner walled cells. The isotype of B. madagassum has only immature capsules that do not allow adequate comparison of peristome features, but this and B. paradoxum are otherwise very similar. Both species are known only from the type collections and since some diflferences are evident they are maintained separately for present purposes.