Monographs Details: Fissidens sufflatus I.G.Stone
Authority: Buck, William R. 1987. Bryostephane Steereana: A Collection of Bryological Papers Presented to William Campbell Steere On The Occasion of His 80th Birthday. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 45: 1-749.
Family:Fissidentaceae
Description:Latin Diagnosis - Ab omnibus speciebus margines suflflatos incrassatos habentes omnium laminamm marginibus ex 1-3 seriebus unistratosis cellulamm composiris neque bistratosis tristratosisve (vide Figs. 1-38) di versus. Holotypus: I. G. Stone 18882 (MEL).

Species Description - Plants laxly gregarious or scattered, usually prostrate on gritty earth often on undercut banks near streams in rainforest. Stems 6-20-jugate, simple or with repeated subterminal innovations 0.5-1 cm or longer including leaves, yellowish becoming red-brovm with age; 2-3 axillary hairs common; conspicuous hyaline nodules absent; in cross section (Fig. 1) with a central strand, an inner cortex of one to two rows of large incrassate yellowish cells and an outer rind of one row (occasionally two) of much smaller and thicker walled red-brown cells. Rhizoids long, red-brown from base of stem. Leaves (Figs. 2-7) not or loosely imbricated, erecto-patent, increasing in loosely imbricated, erecto-patent, increasing in size upwards, more or less unaltered or weakly cmmpled and slightly curled in at the tips when dry, oblong, 0.5-2.5 mm long, 0.15-0.4 mm wide, pale to bluish green, slightly glossy, rather pellucid becoming golden brown with age; lamina of one cell layer sometimes irregularly rugose; apex (fig. 8) obtuse to rounded with a small abmpt apiculus, sometimes weakly denticulate at margins; vaginant laminae (Figs. 2, 9) usually about half leaf length, unequal, joining midway between margin and costa; dorsal lamina with baseusually rounded, abmptly joining at base of costa (Fig. 10), occasionally tapered and decurrent on stem, practically failing in lower leaves; margins (Figs. 11-13) entire or slightly undulate, swollen throughout except in apiculus and base of dorsal and vaginant laminae, the border (Figs. 14-18, 20, 21) composed of a band of 1-3 enlarged usually rounded to shortly oval chlorophyllose cells with incrassate highly refractive walls, often tilted at the edge or with an oblique dividing wall, appearing bistratose in surface view but in fact unistratose as seen in section, lumina of cells almost twice as deep as those of lamina. Costa (Figs. 18-21) glossy, subpercurrent ca. 60 µm wide at base tapering above to 20 µm, bent at top of vaginant lamina; in cross section above with 2 (occasionally 3 or 4 and then in two rows) large deuter cells and an abaxial and adaxial band of stereid cells, below in region of vaginant lamina, with three groups of stereid cells. Cells of apical and dorsal laminae (Figs. 8, 10-12) rounded to hexagonal, strongly mamillose but not papillose, 9-12 µm wide, firm to thick walled, chlorophyllose; cells of vaginant laminae (Figs. 9, 13) similar except for a wide band at base near margin where sometimes narrower and more elongated, near costa greatly enlarged.

Species Description - Dioicous. Male plants similar in size to female plants and with similar subterminal buds and innovations often with a succession of 2-3 perigonia each at the top of an innovation, perigonial leaves (Fig. 22) to 1.8 mm long with apical lamina very contracted at the junction with the greatly broadened vaginant lamina, antheridia several, 300-350 µm long, paraphyses few and filamentous. Female plants often growing from old, brown, partly decayed plants; inflorescences terminal, often appearing lateral because of repeated subterminal fertile innovations, archegonia ca. 450 µm long; perichaetial leaves (Fig. 23) similar to but often slightly smaller than stem leaves, apiculus (Fig. 24) variable, sometimes large with denticulate margin, vaginant laminae unequal, joining near costa, variable, sometimes very short, cells often rhomboidal, 25-40 µm long, those at margin not swollen (Fig. 25). Seta 1-5 to a plant, sometimes two in a perichaetium, ca. 5-6 mm long, slender, pale reddish brown towards base and wider there, slightly curly, tightly twisted below capsule, in transverse section (Fig. 26) with central strand surrounded by 2-3 rows of large cells and 2-3 rows of small very thick walled outer cells. Capsule (Figs. 27, 28) inclined to horizontal, asymmetrical and slightly strumose at base; urn short, appearing truncated, 600-650 µm long, when dry contracted below mouth; exothecial cells (Fig. 29) shortly oblong with longitudinal walls usually thicker than the horizontal, stomata (Fig. 30) few, round-pored, at base of capsule; operculum longer than urn, 800-850 µm long with a conical base and longly rostrate. Peristome teeth (Figs. 31-38) at base 70-80 µm wide, deep red, erect, cohering at several points for about four plates above basal membrane, forming a cylinder above the capsule mouth, bifurcated unequally above into two very long yellow arms ca. 150-310 µm long, finely tapered and bent criss-crossed over the opening when dry; on ventral surface plates at base (Fig. 31) smooth except for a few scattered tiny papillae, the trabeculae conspicuous, bearing short sparse columnar papillae on upper and lower surfaces, plates above the bifurcation (Fig. 32) with densely set spines, trabeculae inconspicuous; on dorsal surface plates at base (Fig. 33) ornamented with closely set horizontal ridges of thickening(occasionally anastomosing) bearing closely set tiny conical papillae regularly arranged on consecutive bars so appearing in vertical and horizontal rows, the trabeculae obscure, plates above the bifurcation (Figs. 34, 35) with vertical ridges bearing scattered downward pointing spines, occasionally slightly oblique in mid-arm, trabeculae conspicuous, in the finely tapered tips (Figs. 36-38) conspicuously spinose. Calyptra (Figs. 27, 28) narrow conical, smooth, with 2-3 short splits at base, ca. 1.0 mm long just covering beak of operculum; vaginula with aborted archegonia on surface. Spores green, more or less smooth, 10-12.5 µm diameter.

Discussion:Holotype: AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Majuba Ck., Mt. Bartlefrere, altitude ca. 400 m, in complex mesophyll vine forest with granite rock outcrops, on earth under overhanging bank beside stream, coUected I. G. & A. G. Stone and A. & M. Thorsborne, 2 Jun 1982, I. G. Stone 18882 (MEL); isotypes will be lodged in BM, BRI and MELU.