Monographs Details: Declieuxia fruticosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Kuntze
Authority: Kirkbride, Joseph H., Jr. 1976. A revision of the genus Declieuxia (Rubiaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 28 (4): 1-87.
Family:Rubiaceae
Description:Species Description - Shrub or subshrub 7-150 cm tall, glabrous or glabrate to hispidulous except flowers and fruit, the branches terete, with stomata, the internodes (0.5-)1-7.5( -12) cm long. Stipules unidentate, linear to narrowly oblong or linear-subulate to narowly triangular or rarely triangular, narrowly acute and glandular at apex, (0.3-)0.5-6.5(-8.5) X 0.1-0.5(-1) mm, decurrent reaching to the next node. Leaves opposite or ternate or rarely quaternate, sessile or rarely petiolate, the petiole winged, 0.5-1.2(-4) mm long; blade coriaceous to chartaceous, elliptic to narrowly so or sometimes ovate to broadly so or rarely obovate to narrowly so, acuminate to narrowly so or acute to narrowly so or rarely obtuse with a point at apex, attenuate to narrowly so or cuneate to narrowly so or acute to narrowly so or obtuse to rarely cordate at base, (1-) 1.3-8 X (0.1-) 0.3-3.7(-5.2) cm, 1.2-12(-17.5) times longer than wide, venation pinnate with (4-)5-9(-10) arcuate, anastomosing lateral veins on each side, the midrib prominent to prominulous or rarely prominulous in a sulcus and the lateral veins prominulous to sulcate above, the midrib prominent to subprominulous and the lateral veins prominent to weakly sulcate beneath, the tertiary venation obscure or closed reticulate. Inflorescences compound dichasia or modified cymes, terminal and axillary at the apical node and sometimes axillary at secondary nodes or rarely at tertiary nodes, pedunculate, 1-6(-7.5) X 0.8-6 cm, with (10-)25-300(-450) flowers, with (1-)2-64 axes, the axes terete, 2-35(-70) mm long; peduncle terete, l-29(-50) mm long, with 2-3 dichasial or larger bracts at the apex, the bracts narrowly elliptic or narrowly oblong to linear or narrowly triangular, narrowly acute at apex, (1-)1.3-16(-19) X 0.15-4(-6) mm. Flowers heterostylous or morphologically, incompletely so in Belize and Cuba, subpedicellate with the pedicels terete, 0.1 -0.8 mm long, dichasial bracts narrowly elliptic or narrowly oblong to linear or narrowly triangular, narrowly acute at apex, (0.5-)0.7-6(-7.5) x 0.2-0.8(-l) mm, sometimes ciliate or minutely and irregularly ciliate; hypanthium obovate to depressed obovate or broadly elliptic to transversely so or oblong to transversely so in outline, 0.3-1.1(-1.8) x 0.5-1.3(-1.5) mm, glabrous or puberulous or glabrous with minutely and densely papillate patches; calyx lobes narrowly triangular to deltoid or narrowly oblong to broadly so, acute to narrowly so or rarely obtuse at apex, 0.1-1.1 x 0.1-0.7 mm, glabrous to sparsely puberulous and rarely ciliate or sparsely and irregularly ciliate; corolla white or blue, salverform, the tube 1.2-7.3 mm long, orifice 0.7-1.7(-2) mm in diam, (0.4-)0.5-1.3 mm at base, exterior glabrous or glabrate to puberulous or sparsely hispidulous, the lobes triangular to broadly so or narrowly ovate to broadly so or oblong to narrowly so or elliptic or obovate, acute to narrowly so at apex, 1.2-3 X 0.5-1.9 mm, glabrous or glabrate to puberulous or sparsely hispidulous outside; stamens with the filaments 0.1-1.4 mm long, glabrous, the anthers 0.7-1.8 mm long, glabrous; style 1.1-7.6 mm long, glabrous. Fruit with the emargination 0.1 -1.3 mm, pedicellate to slightly so with the pedicel 0.1 -1.4 mm long, the mericarps elliptic to broadly so or rarely circular in outline, 1.6-3.5 X 1.4-3 mm, 0.3-0.8(-1) mm thick, glabrous or glabrate to puberulous or papillate-puberulous to papillate and rugose to weakly so.

Discussion:1. Declieuxia fruticosa (Willdenow ex Roemer Sc Schultes) O. Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 279, 1891. Houstonia fruticosa Willdenow ex Roemer 8c Schultes, Syst. Veg. 3: 527, 1818. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. folio: 3: 276, t. 281, 1819; quarto: 3: 354, t. 281, 1820. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland 8c Kunth var genuina Müller Argoviensis, Flora 59(28): 435, 1876. Declieuxia alba Zuccarini ex Schultes 8c Schultes, Mantissa . Syst. Veg. 3: 113, 1827. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland 8c Kunth var papillosa Müller Argoviensis, Flora 59(28): 435, 1876. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Serra dos 3 Barras, prope Tejuco, Martius 1265 (holotype M. fragment G; isotype M). Declieuxia mollis Zuccarini ex Schultes 8c Schultes, Mantissa . . . Syst. Veg. 3: 112, 1827. Type: Brazil, ad Villa do Rio das Contas, Martius 1986 (holotype M, fragment G; isotype M). Declieuxia origanoides Zuccarini ex Schultes 8c Schultes, Mantissa . . . Syst. Veg. 3: 112, 1827. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, without locality, Martius sn (holotype M, fragment G). Declieuxia rubioides Zuccarini ex Schultes 8c Schultes, Mantissa Syst. Veg. 3: 112, 1827. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Martius sn (holotype M, fragment G; isotypes M). Declieuxia vincoides Martius & Zuccarini ex Schultes 8c Schultes, Mantissa . . . Syst. Veg. 3: 113, Í827. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var vincoides (Martius 8c Zuccarini ex Schultes 8c Schultes) Müller Argoviensis, Flora 59(28): 435, 1876. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, without locality, Martius sn (holotype M, fragment G). Declieuxia glauca Martius ex Chamisso 8c Schlechtendal, Linnaea 4(1): 8, 1829. Tvpe: Brazil, without locality. Sello 1721/1126 (lectotype COI; isotype F). Declieuxia mucronulata Martius ex Chamisso & Schlechtendal, Linnaea 4(1): 10, 1829. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var lucida Müller Argoviensis, Flora 59(28): 435, 1876. Type: Brazil, without locality, Sello 171911124 (lectotype COI, isotype S). Declieuxia pulverulenta Martius ex Chamisso & Schlechtendal, Linnaea 4(1): 9, 1829. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var hirta Müller Argoviensis, Flora 59(28): 435, 1876. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, inter Alegres et Rio São Francisco, Nov 1834, Riedel 2868 (neotype BR; isotypes BR, LE, US). Declieuxia foliosa Pohl ex de Candolle, Prodr. 4: 480, 1830. Psyllocarpus foliosus Pohl ex de Candolle, in synonymy, Prodr. 4: 480, 1830. Type: Brazil, Goiás, Ad S. Anna in sumitate montium de S. Felis, Pohl 1971 (holotype G-DC; isotypes F, NY, W). Declieuxia glabra Pohl ex de Candolle, Prodr. 4: 481, 1830. Psyllocarpus glaber Pohl ex de Candolle, in synonymy, Prodr. 4: 481, 1830. Type: Brazil, without locality, Pohl sn (holotype G-DC). Declieuxia mexicana de Candolle, Prodr. 4: 479, 1830. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var mexicana (de Candolle) Müller Argoviensis, Flora 59(28): 435, 1876. Declieuxia fruticosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) O. Kuntze var mexicana (de Candolle) Standley, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 12: 378, 1936. Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth subsp mexicana (de Candolle) Borhidi in Borhidi & Muñiz, Bot. Közlem 58(3): 177, 1971. Type: Mexico, without locality, Haenke sn (lectotype PR; isotype W). Psyllocarpus trichotomus Pohl ex de Candolle, in synonymy, Prodr. 4: 481, 1830. Based upon Pohl 879, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Paracatu (G-DC, W). Declieuxia brevicollis Müller Argoviensis, Flora 59(28): 437,1876. Type: Brazil, Goiás, Porto Real to Igarapé (Smith Sc Smith, 1967), Burchell 8426 (lectotype BR, fragment G). Declieuxia clinopodioides Müller Argoviensis, Flora 28(59): 437, 1876. Type: Brazil, Bahia, ad Villa do Rio das Contas, Martius sn (holotype G; isotype M). Declieuxia revoluta Müller Argoviensis, Flora 28(59): 438, 1876. Type: Brazil, Goiás, Serra d’Ourada, Pohl 1568 (holotype W, fragment G). Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var guyanensis Müller Argoviensis, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(5): 442, 1881. Declieuxia fruticosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) O. Kuntze var guyanensis (Müller Argoviensis) Standley, Publ. Field Columbian Mus., Bot. Ser. 8(5): 369, 1931. Type: Guyana, Rupununi District, prope Pirara, 1840, Spruce 723 (lectotype G; isotypes F, FI, NY, US, W). Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var linearis Müller Argoviensis, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(5): 445, 1881. Type: Venezuela, Amazonas, prope Maypures, ad flumen Orinoco, Jun 1854, Spruce 3657 (lectotype K, fragment G; isotypes BR, W). Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var opaca Müller Argoviensis, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(5): 442, 1881. Type: Brazil, Goiás, Chapada da Mangabeira, Sep 1839, Gardner 3231 (lectotype G; isotypes F, GH, NY, W). Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var pallida Müller Argoviensis, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(5): 444, 1881. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, without locality, Martius sn (holotype M, fragment G). Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth var puberula Müller Argoviensis, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(5): 442, 1881. Type: Brazil, Bahia, Serra Jacobina, Blanchet 3751 (lectotype G; isotypes BR, C, F, G, LE, MO, NY, U, W). Declieuxia chiococcoides Humboldt, Bonpland &: Kunth var puberulina Müller Argoviensis, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(5): 444, 1881. Type: Brazil, São Paulo, prope Mugy, Nov 1833, Riedel 2867 (holotype BR, fragment G; isotypes BR, LE). Declieuxia alfredi Ernst, Revista Ci. Mensual Univ. Centr. Venezuela 1(7): 222, 1887. Type: Venezuela, Amazonas, Puerto Ayacucho, 18 Mai 1940, L. Williams 12999 (neotype US; isotype F). Declieuxia anceps Schumann ex Glaziou, nom nud, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, Mem. 3: 358, 1909. Based upon Glaziou 21500, Brazil, Minas Gerais, entre Lagoa do Piquiero et Buraco da Onça, 30 Sep 1895 (BR, C, F, G, LE, R). Declieuxia calophylla Standley, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 22(3): 184, 1940. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Serra do Cipó, Km 131, 14 Apr 1935, Barreto 1130 & Brade 14738 (holotype F; isotype R, UB). Type: Venezuela, Monagas, Caripe, Vendémiaire an 8 (22/23 Sep-21/22 Oct 1790), Humboldt, Bonpland 223 (D. fruticosa (holotype B-Willdenow hb; isotype P) and D. chiococcoides (holotype P; isotype B-Willdenow hb)). Declieuxia fruticosa is the most complex and variable species of the genus. It also has the largest number of primitive characteristics (see the sections on morphology and phylogeny) and is probably closest to the ancestor of Declieuxia. The center of variation of D. fruticosa is in the Serra do Espinhaço between Ouro Preto and Diamantina; all variants have been found here. From this area, it radiates outwards across the savannas of tropical America, and in northern Central America it is also found in pine forests at higher elevations (see Clewell, 1973). The degree of variation decreases in proportion to the distance from this area. Its pubescence ranges from none at all to very dense with hairs as long as 2 mm. The densest form of pubescence with the longest hairs occurs only in the Espinhaço area. As the distance from this area increases, the most extreme form of pubescence for a particular area becomes less dense with shorter hairs until in Columbia only a few glabrate collections are encountered; all collections from Central America and Cuba are glabrous. The breadth of the leaf blade and the shape of its base also varies in a similar manner. The width of the leaf blade has its greatest ranges in the Espinhaço area with the shape of the base varying from attenuate to obtuse to rarely cordate. As the distance from the Espinhaço area increases, the maximum width of the leaf blade decreases, and the range in shape of its base is reduced. Cordate bases are very rarely encountered outside of the Espinhaço area, and the frequency of occurrence of obtuse leaf bases decreases northward across South America. The processes of racial differentiation have clearly been at work in D. fruticosa. The median condition of a number of minor variants can be recognized, but the morphological characters involved are not sufficient for taxonomic recognition of them when considered in relation to the broad spectra of intermediate forms. The seven most striking minor variants are listed below: 1. A robust, glabrous shrub with a semiherbaceous stem and large leaves.—Moderate to lower elevations in the upper drainage of the Rio São Francisco and rarely eastern Bahia. 2. A small, glabrous shrub with reduced branching and narrower leaves.—Range of the species, and sole variant encountered in Central America, Mexico, and Cuba. (= D. mexicana, D. fruticosa var mexicana). 3. A taller shrub with broad leaves and the pubescence consisting of the longest hairs encountered.—Serra do Espinhaço from the Diamantina area to Ouro Preto. (=D. origanoides). 4. A densely puberulous to hispidulous shrub with moderate sized leaves and extremely long, linear dichasial bracts.—Southern Bahia. (= D. mollis). 5. A glabrous subshrub or shrub with several spreading stems, reduced branching, and coriaceous leaves.—Serra do Cipó and Serra do Cabral. (= D. calophylla). 6. Like m. v. 2 but leaves revolute and slightly more coriaceous.—Serra Dourada. (= D. revoluta). 7. A glabrous shrub with moderate sized, subcoriaceous leaves with subcordate to cordate leaf bases.—Serra do Espinhaço from the Diamantina area to Ouro Preto. (= D. rubioides). Declieuxia fruticosa is most closely related to D. deltoidea and D. pruinosa. It is separated from both by its decurrent stipules.
Distribution:Mexico North America| Central America| Colombia South America|