Monographs Details: Hamelia patens var. glabra Oerst.
Authority: Elias, Thomas S. 1976. A monograph of the genus Hamelia (Rubiaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 26: 81-144.
Description:Distribution and Ecology - Specimens examined. COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Rib Poas, CarriUos de Poas, Brenes 17223 (F), 17244 (NY); vicinity of Capulin on Rib Grande de Tarcoles, Standley 40137 (F, US); Villa Quesada, Smith P2543 (F, MO); Grecia, Smith 2858 (F). Cartago: base of Chirripo Grande, San Isidro del General, Danforth 34 (GH). Guanacaste: Bebedero, Brenes 12554 (F, N Y ) ; woods near Bebedero, Brenes 12605 (F); Nicoya, 200 m. Cook & Doyle 670 (US), Tonduz 13867 (GH, US); 5 miles N of Bagaces, Croat 632 (MO); N of La Cruz, Morley 766 (F, GH, MO, US); Salinas Bay, Pittier 2786 (US). Heredia: 1.4 k m E of Puerto Viejo, Anderson & Mori 7 (WIS). Limon: drainage of Rib Parismina and Rib Reventazon, Shank & Molina 4152 (F); Las Diamantes, 80 m, Dayton 3021 (F); Marais de Matina, Pittier 10298 (US). San Jose: near Tula, Tonduz 11460 (US); Tucurrique, 635 m , Tonduz 12813 (US); Rib ViriUa below El Brazil and Santa Ana, Dodge 7766 (MO). Province unknown: Good Hope Farm, Rowlee & Rowlee 516 (NY, US). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: vicinity of Chiriqui Lagoon, Wedel 1236 (GH, MO); Bastimentos, Wedel2901 (GH, M O , US); Colon Island, Wedel 96 (MO), 2483 (F, GH, MO), 2930 (GH, MO, NY); Pumpkin River, Wedel 2598 (GH, MO); Shepherd Island, McDaniel 5160 (MO); Water Valley, Wedel 664 (GH, MO), 2752 (GH, M O , US); vicinity of Almirante, Cooper 560 (F, NY, US); Changuinola valley, Dunlap 325 (F, US); Rib Changuinola near Changuinola, Dwyer 42 (MO), 2758 (MO); Potrero Island, Dunlap 344 (F, US); Changuinola to 5 miles S of Junction of Rib Changuinola and Rib Terebe, Lewis et al. 821 (MO); Lincolon Creek, Carleton 84 (GH, US); vicinity of Nievecita, Woodson et al. 1850 (A, F, MO, NY). CANAL ZONE. Barro Colorado Island, Aviles 11a (MO), Bangham 428 (A), Ebinger 36 (MO), Hayden 39 (MO), 1039 (MO), 1040 (MO), 1041 (MO), Hunnewell 16466 (GH), Kenoyer 544 (US), Shattuck 167 (A, F, MO), 924 (MO), Standley 41034 (US), Starry 76 (F, MO), Tyson 4211 (MO), Wetmore & Abbe 41 (A, F, MO), 173 (A, F, GH, MO), Wetmore & Vestal 343.5 (A, F), 406 (A, F), 622 (F, MO), Zetek 4270 (MO); vicinity of Cocoli, Tyson 1622 (MO); vicinity of Coco Solo, Duke 4282 (MO), Elias & Kirkbride 1652 (MO); from Colon to Empire, Crawford 509 (F); Darien Station, Heriberto 95 (US), Standley 31567 (US); Farfan beach, Kirkbride 51 (MO), Tyson et al. 3177 ( M O ); near Fort Randolph, Standley 28664 (US), Maxon & Harvey 6540 (US); Fort San Lorenzo, Ebinger 459 (MO), Tyson 1539 (MO), 1551 (MO); vicinity of Fort Sherman, Blum & Dwyer 2131 (MO), Duke 4418A (MO); vicinity of Frijoles, Maxon 4690 (GH, NY, US), Greenman & Greenman 5156 (MO), Standley 27625 (US), 31482 (US); between Frijoles and Monte Lirio, Killip 12126 (US); Gamboa, Standley 28321 (US); near Gatun, Standley 27302 (A, US); Gatun railroad station, Tyson 2280 (MO), Hayes 91 (GH), 103 (GH), 170 (NY), 206 (NY); Juan Mina, Piper 5697 (US); vicinity of Miraflores, White 115 (F, MO); vicinity of Salamanca Hydrographic Station, Woodson et al. 1613 (A, F, MO, NY); 1 mile N of Summit Garden, Tyson & Blum 1941 (MO); near Madden D a m , Kirkbride 52 (MO); Boy Scout C a m p Road, Dwyer & Elias 7476 (MO), 7478 (MO), 7480 (MO), 7483 (MO). Code: forest behind Club Campestre, Duke 13263 (MO); between Las Margaritas and El Valle de Anton, Woodson et al. 1244 (A, F, MO); El Valle de Anton, Allen 3711 (F, NY), Dwyer 1833 (MO), Dwyer & Correa 7967 (MO), Lewis et al. 1788 (COL, MO, UC, VEN), Kirkbride 1084 (MO), Seibert 425 (F, MO). Colon: Achiote, Tyson etal. 4510 (MO); ca. 1 mile S of Gatuncillo, Stimson 5260 ( M O ); Rib Gatuncillo, vicinity of Santa Rosa, Allen 4160 (MO); 2.4 miles S W of Pina, Lewis et al. 1852 ( M O ) ; Porto Bello, Dwyer 5008 (MO); vicinity of San Juan near Lake, Blum & Tyson 525 (MO); vicinity of SardiniUa, Blum & Tyson 507 (MO). Darien: 2-3 miles SE of El Real, Duke 4841 (MO); ca. 10 miles S of El Real on Rib Pirre, Duke 5449 (MO); trail from El Real to Pinogana, Stern et al 274 (GH, M O , US); Rib Pirre, 2-5 miles above El Real, Duke 5082 (MO); Cerro Pirre, Duke 5292 (MO); between Rib Membrillo and Rib Yaviza, Duke 8620 (MO); vicinity of Paya, Stern et al. 354 (GH, M O , US); Rib Pinas, Duke 10546 (MO); 3 miles N of Santa Fe, Tyson et al. 4622 (MO); Tucutio, Terry & Terry 1406 (A, F, MO); vicinity of Yaviza, along Rib Chucunaque, Stern et al. 85 (MO); without exact locality. Sexton 218 (MO). Panama: Alajuela, Dwver 1042 (MO), 1045 (MO); Rib Bayano, 1-4 miles above Piria, D u k e 14398 (MO): above confluence of Rib Chepo, D u k e 3985 (MO); wooded area ca. 6 miles E of Chepo, Duke 4063 (MO), Duke 4082 (MO); 4 miles beyond Chepo, Duke 5575 (MO): along Pan-Am Highway, Duke 3818 (MO); 2 miles E of El Llano, Tyson 1739 (MO); Piria-Cahasas trail near Piria, D u k e 14312 (MO); San Jose Island, Johnston 147 (GH, M O , US), 359 (GH), 1059 (GH), Erlanson 381 (GH, NY, US), Duke 12543 (MO). San Bias Ailigandi, Dwyer 6848 (MO); along the headwaters of Rib Mulatupo, Elias 1755 (MO) Pino Island, near Mulatupo, Elias 1708 (MO); Soskatupu, Elias 1662 (MO), 1699 (MO) Sasardi, D u k e 10135 (MO). Veraguas: Coiba Island, Dwyer 1565 (MO); Tute, Dwyer 4283 (MO). C O L O M B I A . Antioquia: Puerto Berrio, Rusby 4793 (NY); vicinity of MedeUin, Toro 329 (NY); Santo Tomas, Elias 999 (US). Atlantico: vicinity of BarranquiUa, Dugand 41 (F), Elias 113 (US), 116 (GH, N Y , US), 1225 (F, US), Paul 15 (US); near Puerto Colombia, Dugand 4658 (US); SabaniUa, Porter 1114 (GH); vicinity of Salgar, 30-40 m , Dugand 6419 (US); Usiacuri, Dugand & Barriga 2278 (US). BoliVar: vicinity of Cartagena, Heriberto 24 (US), Dugand & Jaramillo 3360 (US); near Since, Castaneda 9652 (NY); vicinity of Turbaco, 200-300 m, Killip & Smith 14167 (A, GH, NY, US). Boyaca: 130 miles NW of Bogota, Lawrance 480 (A, F, GH, MO, NY, US). Caldas: Buena Vista, Pennell & Rusby 64 (NY); near La Dorada, Haught 2108 (NY, US); Santa Cecilia, Sneidern 5156 (F, US). Caqueta: Rib Ortequaza, Juzepczuk 6037 (F). Cauca: El Tambo, Sneidern 921 (NY). Choco: Bahia de Solano, Fernandez 301 (NY, US); Rib San Juan near Palestina, Cuatrecasas 16935 (F). Cundinamarca: La Victoria, 1800-1900 m, Barriga 13330 (US). Guajira: along road to Carraipia, savanna, Cuatrecasas & Castaneda 25495 (US, VEN). Meta: Puerto Lopez, Jaramillo et al. 388 (US), Little & Little 8334 (US); Puerto Sanchez, Haught 2588 (US); Villavicencio, Pennell 1570 (NY). Magdalena: forest near Codazzi, Haught 3736 (F, G H , US); Rib Frib, Walker 1274 (GH, MO, US); Gamarra, Pennell & Rusby 26 (NY); La Paz, Haught 2335 (MO, US); between Medialuna and Pivijay, 20 m , Dugand & Barriga 2522 (US); forest at Rincon Hondo, Allen 364 (MO); foothills of Sierra de Perija, Cuatrecasas & Castaneda 24990 (US, VEN); Santa Marta, Smith 394 (A, GH, MO, US), 1812 (NY). Putumayo: Rib San Miguel, 400 m, Cuatrecasas 10975 (US); Rib Putumayo, forest, Klug 1645 (A, F, GH, MO, US); Puerto Porvenir, along Rib Putumayo, Cuatrecasas 10637 (US). Santander: 14 k m below Landazuri, Rib Quayabito, Fosberg 21844 (US); Puerto Olaya, Fosberg & St. John 21923 (US). Sur de Santander: vicinity of Puerto Berrio, between Rib Carare and Rib Magdalena, Haught 1704 (US), 2202 (US). Tolima: near Aco, Little 7120 (US). Valle: Rib Calima, Cuatrecasas & Willard 26064 (US); 5 k m S of Bugalagrande, Fosberg 21312 (US). Vaupes: Rib Guaviare, San Jose del Guaviare, Cuatrecasas 7461 (F); Rio Guaviare, Molina & Barkley 95 (US). Vichada: Rib Guaviare in the region of Amanabel, Arbelaez et al. 102 (US). VENEZUELA. Amacuro: between La Margarita and Puerta Miranda, rain forest, Steyermark 87794 (F, VEN). Anzoatequi: Puerto La Cruz, John 341 (US). Aragua: near Maracay, Trujillo 3415 (VENS); San Casiniro, Velasco 60 (VEN); Thickets and roadways, Tacarigua, Williams 10281 (VEN); vicinity of Tiara, Montaldo 3477 (VEN), Schner 1078 (VEN). Barinas: Madre del Monte Curbatico, 300-350 m , Bernardi 1730 (NY); Ticoporo forest reserve, Breteler 3896 (US, VEN). Bolivar: El Diamante, Aristiguieta & Foldats 1265 (VEN); 1-10 k m of Upata, on road to San Felix, Steyermark 55720 (F, VEN). Carabobo: road from Puerto CabeUo to San Felipe, Pittier 8907 (GH, NY, US, VEN); near San Esteban, Schner 1186 (VEN); Rib San Gian, 5-6 k m S of Borburata, Steyermark 64695 (VEN). Falcon: Paraguana peninsula, 1.5 k m from Pueblo Nuevo to Santa Ana, Breteler 4371 (US, VEN); Sierra de San Luis, near Puente de Jobo, Steyermark 73061 (VEN); Paraguana, Lasser & Aristeguieta 3326 (F); vicinity of Tucacas, s. col 764 (VEN). Federal District: La Guaira, Lyon s.n. (US); between Caracas and La Guaira, Rose & Rose 21923 (GH, US); Puerto La Cruz, Holt 178 (VEN); Cerro Naiguata, 900-1000 m, Steyermark 65723 (VEN). Lara: Rib Turbio, Saer224 (US, VEN). Merida: without exact locality, Bernardi 3306 (NY). Miranda: Hacienda Cardenas, Hot 593 (VEN); Hacienda El Volcan, Pittier 8250 (GH, VEN); Ocumare del Tuy, Martinez 21 (VEN). Sucre: vicinity of Cristobal Colon, Broadway 268 (GH, MO, US); Paria peninsula, Cariaquita, Bondetal 50 (NY); Cerro Patao, Steyermark & Agostini 91275 (VEN). Trujillo: between Timotes and Valera, Steyermark 56756 (F, VEN). Yaracuy: La Bauauera (?), Trujillo 1908 (VEN). Zuha: Encontrados, Bernardi s.n. (NY); along Rib Catatumbo between Boca Rib de Oro and Colombian frontier, Bruijn 1433 (VEN); Sierra de Perija, 270-290 m, Steyermark & Fernandez 73041 (VEN); vicinity of Perija, Tejera 12 (US). GUIANA. Essequibo: Barima River, river banks. Cowan 39399 (NY, US), s. col F3428 (NY). ECUADOR. Guayas: Milagro, Hitchcock 20291 (GH, NY); Rib Grande, near San Ignacio, Heilborn 81 (F). Los Ribs: near Quevedo, Canton Vinces, Mexia 6607 (F, MO, US); Hacienda Clementina on Rib Pita, Asplund 5373 (US). Napo-Pastaza: 8 km N of Archidona on trail between Baeza and Tena, Ownbey 2713 (US); valley of Rib Chingual, Steere 8340 (F). PERU. Loreto: above Pongo de Manseriche, left bank of Rib Santiago, Mexia 6367 (GH, MO, NY). BRAZIL. Amazonas: near mouth of Rib Embira, tributary of Rib Tarauaca, Krukoff 4710 (A, F, MO, US), 4864 (A, MO, NY, US), 5119 (A, F, MO, US). Bahia: 12 k m N of Barro Central, Belem & Magalhaes 869 (NY); near Itabuna, Jussari Experimental Station, Silva 58363 (NY); without exact locality, Blanchet s.n. (NY), Glocker 148 (NY). BOLIVIA. Province unknown: without exact locality, Williams 439 (US).
Discussion:7b. Hamelia patens var. glabra Oersted, Vid. Medd. Nat. For. Kjobenh. 1852: 42. 1853.
H. suaveolens H.B.K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3:414.1818 (holotype, Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. P).
Duhamelia odorata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. in. L., Syst. Veg. ed. nov. 5: 267. 1819 (holotype, Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. P?).
Hamelia nodosa Mart. & Gal., Bull. Acad. Brux. 11: 234. 1844 (holotype, Galeotti 2581, P).
H. tubiflora Wernh., Jour. Bot. London 49: 212. 1911 (syntypes, Holton s.n., BM!, GH!, NY!; Purdie s.n. K).
H. pedicellata Wernh., Jour. Bot. London 49: 212. 1911 (syntypes Smith 394, BM, 1817 A!, BM, GH!, MO!, NY!, US!; Von Rohr 65, BM; Fender 446, BM; Anderson s.n., K; Guilding s.n., K).
H. viridifolia Wernh., Jour. Bot. London49: 213.1911 (holotype, Tonduz 13867, K; isotypes; GH!, US!).
H. brachystemon Wernh., Jour. Bot. London 49: 216. 1911 (holotype, Schlim 5417, K; isotype, F!).
Type. Nicaragua. San Juan, Oersted s.n. (holotype, C).
This glabrous variety of Hamelia patens is centered in northern South America, extending northward to Nicaragua, disjunctly to Mexico, and to Trinidad and Tobago. Variety glabra does not extend as far south in South America as does var. patens. In Mexico and in Central America, especially in work done in Costa Rica and Panama, var. glabra has generally been called H. nodosa, which was formerly considered to be a distinct species closely related to H patens, separated from it by the paucity of trichomes. The South American counterpart of the almost glabrous H nodosa was called H pedicellata, centered in Venezuela and Colombia. These populations generally have slightly smaller corolla tubes, but this very minor difference does not warrant subspecific or specific status. Although the two specific names H. nodosa and H. pedicellata have been widely used, the oldest legitimate varietal name for the semi-glabrous variety of H. patens is var. glabra first named from Central America. Three other species names, H. tubiflora, H. viridifolia, and H. brachystemon have been given to minor variants of the widely distributed H. patens.
Leaf color, used by Wernham (1911) as a taxonomic character, was studied extensively. Observations were made on a population of H. patens var. glabra on the small island of Suskatuppu off the Atlantic coast of Panama (San Bias). The soil was extremely poor, consisting mainly of ground shell or ground coral mixed with sand. Vegetation on the island was sparse and scarcely reached 10 m in height in the more luxuriant areas. Large bushes of var. glabra were found growing in completely exposed areas, partially exposed areas, and strongly shaded areas. T he bushes growing in full sun had mature leaves that were bright red in color, while others were red mottled. The immature leaves were green with a slight reddish tinge, darkest along the costa and petiole. In partial sunlight, the bushes exhibited similar coloration patterns, except that the red color was not as intense, and the mature leaves were usually mottled rather than being completely red. Those bushes growing in strongly shaded areas had only green leaves at maturity, with reddish traces on the petioles and costae. Using bushes from the same population on Suskatuppu, these light conditions were simulated in the greenhouses of the Missouri Botanical Garden, the results being identical to those obtained in the field.
Similar accounts of the varying degrees of redness of the leaves have been cited by Richards (1952). The evidence indicates that the increased production of red pigment is a protective measure against the strong, direct rays of the sun, and not a stable taxonomic character, as Wernham believed.
Distribution:Costa Rica South America
| Panama Central America
| Colombia South America
| Venezuela South America
| Guyana South America
| Bolivia South America