Monographs Details: Herpetineuron
Authority: Buck, William R. 1998. Pleurocarpous mosses of the West Indies. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 82: 1-400.
Scientific Name:Herpetineuron
Description:Genus Description - Plants mostly medium-sized, in stiff, dull, dark-green (when living) to yellow-brown mats. Primary stems creeping, slender, rhizomelike, radiculose, turning ca. 90° and becoming the secondary stem, the creeping stem continuing by a bud from near the base of the secondary stem, secondary stems ascending, curved when dry, sparsely and irregularly branched; in cross-section with numerous rows of small thick-walled cells surrounding larger thin-walled cells, central strand present; paraphyllia none; pseudoparaphyllia none; axillary hairs with all cells hyaline and ± equal-sized or basal ones somewhat shorter. Stem and secondary stem/branch leaves differentiated, stem leaves widely spaced, small, pale, deltoid, acuminate, with entire margins; branch leaves erect to falcate and subtubulose when dry, erect-spreading when moist, ovate-lanceolate, acute to short-acuminate, concave, ± plicate at base; margins irregularly and coarsely serrate above, serrulate below, plane except narrowly recurved near insertion; costa single, tapered and flexuose above, subpercurrent; cells rhombic to subquadrate, smooth, firm-walled, uniform throughout leaf; alar cells not differentiated. Asexual propagula often of flagellate branches. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves erect, sheathing, pale, oblong, subulate; margins entire, plane; costa single; cells ± oblong above, somewhat longer below, smooth. Setae elongate, smooth, orange to reddish, flexuose; capsules erect and symmetric, oval-cylindric, slightly constricted at mouth; exothecial cells short-rectangular, thin-walled; annulus well developed; operculum high-conic; columella cylindric, slightly flaring at apex, ending just below capsule mouth; peristome double, bone-white when dry, yellowish white when moist, attached at or near the mouth, exostome teeth narrowly triangular, not shouldered, narrowly bordered, coarsely papillose throughout, not trabeculate at back; endostome coarsely papillose, with a medium-high basal membrane, segments slender, short, keeled, narrowly perforate, cilia none. Spores spherical, papillose. Calyptrae cucullate, naked, smooth.

Discussion:Herpetineuron (Müll. Hal.) Cardot, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19(2): 127. 1905 [1906]; Anomodon sect. Herpetineuron Müll. Hal., Flora 73: 496. 1890. Discussion. Herpetineuron is clearly related to Anomodon but has a different branching pattern, smooth leaf cells, flexuose costa, well-developed annulus, and a high-conic operculum. It is recognized by its branches curved when dry, leaves ovate-lanceolate and acute, coarsely serrate leaf margins, and homogeneous areolation. The genus may well be monospecific, occurring in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The other taxa placed in the genus seem to have little to do with the type species.