Monographs Details: Cybianthus sect. Conomorpha
Authority: Pipoly III, John J. 1987. A systematic revision of the genus Cybianthus subgenus Grammadenia (Myrsinaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 43: 1-75.
Family:Myrsinaceae
Description:Species Description - Terrestrial or epiphytic, monoaxial or polyaxial shrubs or trees to 15 m tall. Roots positively geotropic or diageotropic. Branchlets glabrous, glandular-granulose, dendroid- and stellate-tomentose, furfuraceous- or ferrugineous-stipitatelepidote. Leaves sessile or petiolate, alternate, subopposite, or pseudoverticillate, the venation camptodromous or acrodromous, the petioles canaliculate or pulvinate. Inflorescence axillary, a simple raceme, a panicle of racemose branches, or an indeterminate umbel appearing racemose. Flowers functionally unisexual or bisexual, 3-6(-7)-merous. Staminate flowers with a conic, lageniform, turbinate, or irregularly shaped vestigial pistillode, the pistillode hollow or bearing a sterile placenta. Pistillate flowers with staminodes morphologically similar to the stamens but greatly reduced in size, at times producing abortive pollen. Calyx cotyliform or cupuliform, the lobes imbricate, valvate, or aberrantly contorted, basally connate 1/3-2/3 their length, abaxially glabrous, glandular-granulose, or stipitatelepidote, adaxially glabrous, glandular-granulose, or translucent glandular-lepidote. Stamens adnate to corolla tube at least 2/3 their length, thefilaments variously connate to form a tube, the staminal tube adnate to the corolla tube or at times developmentally fused with it, bearing fleshy lobes alternate with the anthers or not, the anthers ovate, widely ovate, or triangular, basifixed or dorsifixed, apically acute, rounded, emarginate, or minutely apiculate, basally cordate, dehiscent by confluent apical pores or by wide to narrow longitudinal slits; pollen tricolporate, psilate; pistil obnapiform, umbonate, or turbinate, the ovary sparsely to densely translucent glandular-lepidote, the style glabrous, the stigma capitate, capitate-obate, or punctiform, the placenta free-central, camose, umbonate, the ovules campylotropous, (1-)2-5(-7), uni- or biseriate. Fruit dmpaceous, 1 (-2)-seeded, the endosperm translucent, non-starchy, the embryo small, linear, flexuous, erect or curved, longitudinal or transverse, the cotyledons not well-developed.

Discussion:

A neotropical genus of approximately 150 species, Cybianthus inhabits mesic or humid sites in paramos, subparamo thickets, elfin, cloud, montane and lowland moist or wet forests. Members of the genus are primarily found in natural ecotones and in riparian areas and are restricted to primary habitats. Therefore, their occurrence in a given locality is a direct indication of low levels of disturbance.

As here interpreted, Cybianthus includes those taxa formerly placed in Comomyrsine Hooker f., Conomorpha A. D C , Correlliana D'Arcy, Cybianthopsis (Mez) Lundell, Grammadenia Bentham, Microconomorpha (Mez) Lundell, and Weigeltia A. D C . Agostini (1980) presented an infrageneric classification which closely parallels that of the present treatment, but which did not include Grammadenia because of its bisexual flowers and sessile leaves. Further discussion of the differences in subgeneric delimitation is presented in the Phylogeny section.

A formal treatment of Cybianthus subg. Grammadenia (Bentham) Pipoly is presented below. A complete list of generic synonymy for the genus Cybianthus will be presented in the treatment to appear in Flora Neotropica.